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Physiologic (innocent) heart murmurs are detectable in young dogs of many breeds, and in most instances, they diminish or resolve by the age of 6 months. 1,2 However, in Boxers, the prevalence of heart murmurs in the adult population is high

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Asystolic heart murmur is a prominent finding in dogs with regurgitation through the mitral valve (ie, MR) attributable to MMVD. This condition is the most common cardiac disorder in dogs, 1–4 and the highest prevalence is found in small- to

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Auscultation was used for the detection of heart murmurs. ECG —Base-apex ECG was performed by use of a portable ECG unit d and needle electrodes. 1 The ECG measurements were obtained by 1 investigator (DBA) at a paper speed of 25 mm/s and sensitivity of 5

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

and accurate diagnosis and emergency care are required. Auscultation and thoracic radiography are standard methods for the detection of CPE in dogs. Auscultation allows evaluation of heart murmurs as well as the presence or absence of pulmonary edema

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

suspected of having MMVD but that failed to fulfill all inclusion criteria. Dog characteristics such as age, breed, and sex were recorded for all dogs. A physical examination was performed on each dog, including assessment for systolic heart murmurs at the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

indices in healthy dogs. Materials and Methods Animals Dogs referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Hokkaido University between November 2014 and March 2018 were eligible for enrollment. Exclusion criteria were the presence of a heart

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

], and inflammatory skin disorder [1]) and the presence of soft parasternal systolic heart murmurs of similar intensity on left and right sides in 3 cats. Doppler echocardiography disclosed minor and hemodynamically benign abnormalities (trivial tricuspid

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

healthy with clear lung sounds, regular heart rhythm, and no heart murmur. The following previously described diagnostic procedures 19–22 were performed: blood analysis, including blood biochemical analysis, a protein electrophoresis, b and CBC

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

—The mitral valves of the 5 clinically normal dogs were all classified as normal during gross pathological examination. The 7 dogs with CMVD each had a left systolic regurgitant heart murmur of grade 3/6 or higher. Echocardiographic findings of mitral

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

systolic heart murmur and left-sided heart failure, critical effects of breed and sex . J Vet Cardiol 2006 ; 8 : 11 – 18 . 10.1016/j.jvc.2005.10.001 39. Sivakumar P Gupta S Sarkar S , et al. Upregulation of lysyl oxidase and MMPs during

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research