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SUMMARY

Xylazine (0.05 mg/kg of body weight diluted to a 5-ml volume, using 0.9% NaCl) or 5 ml of 0.9% NaCl was administered epidurally into the first caudal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2) in 8 cows (mean ± sd body weight, 583 ± 150 kg). Cows were observed for responses to deep needle pricking of the caudal dermatomes (S3 to Co), sedation, and ataxia. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, rate of ruminal contractions, coccygeal arterial blood pressure, pHa, blood gas tension (Pa o 2 , Pa co 2 ), base excess, total solids concentration, and pcv were determined before and after xylazine administration. Epidurally administered xylazine induced sedation and selective (S3 to Co) analgesia for at least 2 hours. Mild ataxia of hind limbs was observed in 6 cows, but all cows remained standing. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rate of ruminal contractions, arterial blood pressure, Pa o 2 , pcv, and total solids concentration were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased, and Pa co 2 , base excess, and bicarbonate concentration were significantly (P < 0.05) increased after xylazine administration. Epidurally administered 0.9% NaCl did not alter sensory perception to needle pricking and did not affect any of the physiologic variables determined. Although epidural administration of xylazine induced analgesia and sedation in healthy cows, it should be avoided for epidural analgesia in cattle with heart disease, lung disease, and/or gastrointestinal disease because of its potent cardiopulmonary and ruminal depressant effects.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

tissue repair. Finally, eosinophils can also initiate antigen-specific immune responses by acting as antigen-presenting cells. 1 In diseased bowel of human patients with eosinophil-associated gastrointestinal diseases (including gastroesophageal reflux

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

regulatory pathway are associated with hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal diseases. 14 Reduced circulating FGF-19 concentration in humans has been correlated with bile acids– related diarrhea, lower fasting gallbladder volumes, and predisposition to

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Nantes in closed indoor and outdoor runs for the duration of the study and were exercised outdoors for 1 hour once daily. No dogs had a history of previous gastrointestinal disease, and all had been vaccinated and dewormed before enrollment in the study

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

obstructive disease or were undergoing intraocular surgery were excluded because morphine-induced vomiting could worsen the gastrointestinal disease or increase intraocular pressure. 6 Aggressive dogs and dogs that received NSAIDs or other analgesics before

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

veterinary medicine include the use of SDF video microscopy. An SDF video microscope that is applied to the colonic serosa of horses with gastrointestinal disease successfully quantifies microvascular perfusion parameters, which may be useful indicators of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. The cats were part of a research colony at the University of Georgia and had no history of gastrointestinal disease. Prior to inclusion in the study, all cats were verified as healthy on the basis of physical examination findings and results of a full

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

endotoxemia, which develops when LPS from gram-negative bacteria enter the circulation, which can happen as a result of various inflammatory diseases, such as gastrointestinal diseases, pleuropneumonia, retained placenta, or metritis. 18–21 Direct exposure of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Gastrointestinal diseases . In: Quesenberry KE , Orcutt CJ , Mans C , Carpenter JW , eds. Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery . 4th ed. Elsevier ; 2020 : 27 – 38 . 10.1016/B978-0-323-48435-0.00003-4 7386600 13. van de

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

formulations of indomethacin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to pigs: a model for human gastrointestinal disease . J Pharm Pharmacol 2003 ; 55 : 661 – 668 . 31. MacAllister CG Morgan SJ Borne AT , et al . Comparison of adverse

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research