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Summary

Equine neonatal chondrocytes were cultured in three-dimensional fibrin matrices under conditions of immediate implantation or implantation following monolayer culture for 6 days, and 3 cell concentrations (1 × 105, 1 × 106, and 5 × 106 chondrocytes/ cm3). Equine fibrinogen was collected by cryoprecipitation and polymerized by use of activated bovine thrombin. The fibrin implants were harvested and analyzed histologically and biochemically at 3, 7, and 14 days after the chondrocytes were implanted in fibrin. The differentiation ratio (ratio of rounded, chondrocyte-like cells to stellate, fibroblast-like cells) was statistically higher for implants that received 5 × 106 precultured cells at all time periods than for implants that received 1 × 105 or 1 × 106 precultured cells. The differentiation ratio was statistically higher for implants that received 5 × 106 immediately implanted cells than for other implants at 7 days after implantation. At 14 days, implants that received 5 × 106 precultured chondrocytes had a higher differentiation ratio than did implants that received 5 × 106 chondrocytes that had not been precultured. Among implants that received precultured chondrocytes, total glycosaminoglycan and chondroitin sulfate content was lowest for implants that received only 1 × 105 cells. Among implants that received chondrocytes that had not been precultured, glycosaminoglycan content was not significantly different among the 3 cell concentrations, and chondroitin sulfate content was different only between implants that received 5 × 106 vs 1 × 106 cells. Only after the longest incubation period and at the highest cell concentration studied did preculturing of chondrocytes improve maintenance of phenotype. Preculturing did not appear to influence proteoglycan synthesis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The effects of intra-articular administration of methylprednisolone acetate (mpa) on the healing of full-thickness osteochondral defects and on normal cartilage were evaluated in 8 horses. In group-1 horses (n = 4), a 1-cm-diameter, full-thickness defect was created bilaterally in the articular cartilage on the dorsal distal surface of the radial carpal bone. Cartilage defects were not created in group-2 horses (n = 4). One middle carpal joint was randomly selected in each horse (groups 1 and 2), and treated with an intra-articular injection of 100 mg of mpa, once a week for 4 treatments. Injections began 1 week after surgery in group-1 horses. The contralateral middle carpal joint received intra-articular injections of an equivalent volume of 0.9% sodium chloride solution (scs), and served as a control. Horses were evaluated for 16 weeks, then were euthanatized, and the middle carpal joints were examined and photographed. Synovial and articular cartilage specimens were obtained for histologic and histochemical evaluation.

Gross morphometric evaluation of the healing defects in group-1 horses revealed that 48.6% of the defect in control joints and 0% of the defect in mpa-treated joints was resurfaced with a smooth, white tissue, histologically confirmed as fibrocartilage. This replacement tissue was a firmly attached fibrocartilage in control joints and a thin fibrous tissue in mpa-treated joints. The articular cartilage in joints treated with mpa had morphologic changes, including chondrocyte cluster formation, loss of palisading architecture, and cellular necrosis in both groups of horses. Histochemical (safranin-0) staining intensity was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in all layers of articular cartilage in mpa-treated joints in groups 1 and 2. In the replacement tissue, intense safranin-0 staining was found only in the chondrocyte clusters deep in the tissue of control joints, confirming fibrocartilage repair. Intra-articular administration of mpa in this dosing regimen thus induced degenerative changes in normal articular cartilage and resulted in histomorphologic changes in the repair of full-thickness articular osteochondral defects in horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare a ventral and a left lateral endoscopic approach to coelioscopy in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

ANIMALS

18 adult bearded dragons.

PROCEDURES

In a randomized crossover design involving 2 surgical approaches, anesthetized bearded dragons first underwent coelioscopy with a ventral approach (left lateral of midline next to the umbilicus; animal positioned in dorsal recumbency) or left lateral approach (intercostal; animal positioned in right lateral recumbency) and then with the alternate approach. A 2.7-mm × 18-cm, 30° oblique telescope with a 4.8-mm operating sheath and CO2 insufflation at 2 to 5 mm Hg were used. Ease of entry into the coelom and ease of visual examination of visceral structures were scored.

RESULTS

Both approaches were straightforward, with the left lateral approach requiring significantly more time than the ventral approach. Scores for ease of visual examination for the heart, lungs, liver, stomach, intestines, pancreas, gallbladder, left kidney, gonads, and fat body were good to excellent. Visual examination of the spleen and adrenal glands was difficult in most animals via either approach. The left kidney, testis, and vas deferens were easier to see with the left lateral approach, whereas the pancreas in females and gallbladder in both sexes were easier to see with the ventral approach. All bearded dragons recovered without complications from the procedures, except for one with nephritis, renal gout, and hepatic necrosis.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Both coelioscopy approaches could be safely and effectively used in bearded dragons. Choice of approach should be based on the coelomic structures requiring evaluation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine characteristics of the inflammatory reaction in the jejunum of horses in response to various mechanical manipulations.

Animals—12 adult warmblood horses without gastrointestinal tract disorders.

Procedures—The proximal aspect of the jejunum in each horse was divided into 5 segments, and the following manipulations were performed: manual emptying, placement of Doyen forceps, enterotomy alone, enterotomy with mucosal abrasion, and serosal abrasion. Jejunum samples were collected before (control), immediately after, and 30 minutes after the end of manipulations and histologically evaluated to determine distribution of neutrophils and eosinophils.

Results—Macroscopically, all manipulations resulted in jejunal hemorrhage and edema. Compared with control samples, neutrophil numbers were significantly higher after manipulations in the serosa (after all manipulation types), circular muscle layer (after manual emptying), submucosa (after placement of Doyen forceps), and mucosa (after all manipulations except enterotomy alone). Eosinophil numbers were significantly higher in the submucosa after mechanical abrasion of the serosa and manual emptying versus control samples.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated mechanical manipulation of the jejunum resulted in local inflammatory reactions characterized predominantly by infiltration of neutrophils. This could contribute to the development of postoperative ileus or adhesions in horses without macroscopically detectable injury of the jejunum during surgery.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate effects of laparoscopic-assisted incisional gastropexy (LAIG) on gastric motility in dogs by use of a wireless motility device (WMD).

ANIMALS

10 healthy client-owned large or giant-breed dogs.

PROCEDURES

10 dogs owned by clients interested in prophylactic LAIG were enrolled. To determine effects of LAIG on gastrointestinal motility in dogs during the nonfed state, each dog was evaluated by use of a noninvasive WMD before and > 4 weeks after LAIG. All dogs underwent LAIG, with or without concurrent elective gonadectomy. Data obtained before and after LAIG were analyzed by use of proprietary software to determine the gastric emptying time, small bowel transit time, large bowel transit time, whole bowel transit time, and motility index.

RESULTS

No changes in variables were detected between measurements obtained before and after prophylactic LAIG.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In this study, prophylactic LAIG did not have an effect on gastrointestinal motility. The WMD was tolerated well by all dogs and appeared to be a safe and effective method for evaluating gastrointestinal motility in this population of dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Infect Control . 1992 ; 20 ( 5 ): 271 – 274 . 10.1016/S0196-6553(05)80201-9 6. Cruse PJ , Foord R. The epidemiology of wound infection. A 10-year prospective study of 62,939 wounds . Surg Clin North Am . 1980 ; 60 ( 1 ): 27 – 40 . 10.1016/S

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

canine homolog of hepatitis C virus . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011 ; 108 : 11608 – 11613 . 18. Wallace WC Cinat ME Nastanski F , et al. New epidemiology for postoperative nosocomial infections . Am Surg 2000 ; 66 : 874 – 878 .

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

appendicular musculoskeletal disorders in 16 veterinary teaching hospitals from 1980 through 1989 . Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 1994 ; 7 : 56 – 69 . 10.1055/s-0038-1633097 3. Whitehair JG Vasseur PB Willits NH . Epidemiology of cranial cruciate

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-operative surgical site infections in dogs and cats . Vet Surg 2004 ; 33 : 542 – 550 . 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2004.04076.x 15. Cruse PJ Foord R . The epidemiology of wound infection. A 10-year prospective study of 62,939 wounds . Surg Clin North Am 1980

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Ultra XPS, Kratos Ltd, Manchester, UK. j. Fisherbrand PTFE Beaker, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, Mass. References 1 Whitehair JG Vasseur PB Willits NH . Epidemiology of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs . J Am Vet Med

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research