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delivery to institutionalize an integrated approach between veterinary and human medicine, including epidemiology, laboratory, and environmental disciplines. In the present report, we describe an example of such an initiative. Specifically, we discuss the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Various descriptive approaches were taken in a prospective investigation to characterize fetal loss in cows on a California dairy. The methods and observations were offered for consideration by practitioners engaged in dairy herd health medicine. For 4,732 pregnancies followed from 2,163 cows in a 6.5 year period, the respective proportions (percentage) of cows aborting (1 – cumulative proportion not aborting by 260 days) and abortion densities (abortions per 10,000 cow-days-at-risk) were 10.63 and 6.29 for all fetal deaths, 9.36 and 5.49 for deaths resulting in fetal expulsion, and 1.39 and 0.80 for deaths resulting in mummification. The greatest risk of fetal death (119 deaths/10,000 fetuses/d) was observed between 98 and 105 days of gestation, and median age at fetal death ranged from 99.0 to 105.5 days. Abortion density for fetal deaths resulting in mummification for cows conceiving during September (1.61/10,000 fetuses/d) and October (1.63/10,000 fetuses/d) was tenfold greater than that for cows conceiving in February (0.16/10,000 fetuses/d) and was twice that of the overall rate (0.84/10,000 fetuses/d). For cohorts of nonculled cows, abortion rate increased after 5 years of age, after 5 pregnancies, or after 4 calvings. For cows with at least one previous abortion, the proportion aborting (14.50%) was higher than that for cows without a previous abortion (12.14%). For a given gravidity, abortion rate was higher among cows that had experienced a previous abortion, compared with those that had not. These methods and observations may help provide a logical foundation on which to base clinical hypotheses regarding causes of abortion, and they may offer insight into pitfalls of bias and confounding to be anticipated.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

not been formally disseminated by the USDA, NIFA, or the Center for Epidemiology and Animal Health and should not be constituted to represent any agency determination or policy. The authors thank Todd Behre for his review and direction for this

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

United States, 2007–08 . #N512.0209. Fort Collins, Colo: USDA, APHIS, Veterinary Services, Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, 2009. 2. USDA . Dairy 2007, part IV: reference of dairy cattle health and management practices in the United States

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

RL . Human fatalities resulting from dog attacks in the United States, 1979–2005 . Wilderness Environ Med 2009 ; 20 : 19 – 25 . 10.1580/08-WEME-OR-213.1 4. Overall KL Love M . Dog bites to humans—demography, epidemiology, injury, and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

: a case study and review of the literature . Ergonomics 1999 ; 42 : 171 – 182 . 10.1080/001401399185874 14. Gordis L . Epidemiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia : Elsevier Saunders , 2004 ; 121 – 122 . 15. Ballweber LR . Parasites of the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Johnson-Ifearulundu YJ Kaneene JB . Epidemiology and economic impact of subclinical Johne's disease: a review. Vet Bull 1997 ; 67 : 437 – 447 . 5. USDA . NVSL approved laboratories . Available at: www

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

USDA Center for Epidemiology and Animal Health in Fort Collins, Colo. 18 A premises identification number will be assigned by the state in which the egg premises are located. Participants may opt to register their premises online or by mailing or

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association