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Abstract

Objective—To apply the principle of sodium dilution to calculate the changes in the extracellular fluid (ECF) volume (ECFV) and intracellular fluid volume (ICFV) that occur during dehydration and rehydration in horses.

Animals—8 healthy horses of various breeds.

Procedures—Horses were dehydrated over 4 hours by withholding water and administering furosemide. Saline (0.9% NaCl) solution was administered IV during the next 2 hours (20 mL/kg/h; total 40 mL/kg). Horses were monitored for an additional hour following IV fluid administration. Initial ECFV was determined by use of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, and serum sodium concentration was used to calculate total ECF sodium content. Sodium and fluid volume losses were monitored and calculated throughout the study and used to estimate changes in ECFV and ICFV during fluid balance alterations.

Results—Changes during dehydration and rehydration primarily occurred in the ECFV. The sodium dilution principle estimated an overexpansion of the ECFV beyond the volume of fluid administered, indicating a small contraction of the ICFV in response to fluid administration. Serum and urinary electrolyte changes were recorded and were consistent with those of previous reports.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The sodium dilution principle provided a simple method that can be used to estimate the changes in ECFV and ICFV that occur during fluid administration. Results suggested an overexpansion of the ECFV in response to IV saline solution administration. The sodium dilution principle requires further validation in healthy and clinically ill horses, which could provide clinical applications similar to those in other species.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine values for total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid volume (ECFV), intracellular fluid volume (ICFV), and plasma volume (PV) in healthy neonatal (< 24 hours old) foals and to create a multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) model for use in neonatal foals.

Animals—7 healthy neonatal foals.

Procedures—Deuterium oxide (0.4 g/kg, IV), sodium bromide (30 mg/kg, IV), and Evans blue dye (1 mg/kg, IV) were administered to each foal. Plasma samples were obtained following an equilibration period, and the TBW, ECFV, ICFV, and PV were calculated for each foal. An MF-BIA model was created by use of morphometric measurements from each foal.

Results—Mean ± SD values were obtained for TBW (0.744 ± 0.024 L/kg), ICFV (0.381 ± 0.018 L/kg), ECFV (0.363 ± 0.014 L/kg), and PV (0.096 ± 0.015 L/kg). The 95% limits of agreement between the MF-BIA and indicator dilution techniques were within ± 2 L for TBW and ECFV.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Fluid volumes in neonatal foals were found to be substantially larger than fluid volumes in adult horses. Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis may be a useful technique for predicting TBW, ICFV, and ECFV in neonatal foals.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate changes in electrolyte concentrations and hydration status that take place in endurance horses prior to the start of a competition and determine whether these changes would be associated with elimination.

ANIMALS

19 horses entered in the 2016 Tevis Cup 100-Miles (160 km) One-Day Western States Trail Ride.

PROCEDURES

Heparinized blood samples were collected at 5 time points: prior to transport to the ride (T0), during check-in the day before the ride (T1), 1 to 2 hours before the start of the ride (T2), at the 15-km mark (T3), and at the 55-km mark (T4). Packed cell volume and plasma sodium, potassium, chloride, urea nitrogen, glucose, bicarbonate, and total protein concentrations were determined and compared across time points and between finishers and nonfinishers.

RESULTS

Signif icant differences were detected among plasma sodium, potassium, and urea nitrogen concentrations measured prior to the start of the ride (ie, T0, T1, and T2). For all variables except chloride and bicarbonate concentrations, significant differences were detected between values obtained prior to the start of the ride and values obtained during the ride (ie, T3 and T4). Only bicarbonate concentration at the 15-km mark of the ride was significantly associated with finishing status.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that significant changes in plasma sodium, potassium, and urea nitrogen concentrations can occur in endurance horses during transport to a competition and when horses are stabled overnight before an event. Additionally, a lower bicarbonate concentration following a steep climb early during the ride was associated with subsequent elimination.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the effects of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) on the synthesis of DNA, collagen, and proteoglycans (PG) by equine chondrocytes.

Sample Population

Articular cartilage obtained from multiple joints of a 4-month-old foal.

Procedure

Chondrocytes were isolated by collagenase digestion, cultured in monolayer, trypsinized, and implanted at a cellular density of 10 × 106 chondrocytes/ml in a three-dimensional fibrin matrix. Chondrocytes in culture were supplemented with TGF-β1 at concentrations of 0, 1, 5, or 10 ng/ml in serum-free medium or medium containing fetal bovine serum (FBS). Total PG accumulation, [35S]-labeled PG synthesis, PG monomer hydrodynamic size, type II collagen production, total DNA content, and [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA were determined at 7 and 14 days of culture.

Results

Chondrocytes maintained a rounded phenotype, dedifferentiating slightly to a more fibroblastic appearance only in medium containing FBS and 10 ng of TGF-β1/ml. Type II collagen immunoreaction on day 14 was decreased in the pericellular matrix in cultures containing FBS and 1, 5, and 10 ng of TGF-β1/ml, and in all serum-free culture conditions compared to FBS and 0 ng of TGF-β1/ml. Total proteoglycan accumulation and [35S]-labeled proteoglycan synthesis in cultures on days 7 and 14 were increased by the addition of exogenous TGF-β1 in serum-free conditions and decreased by TGF-β1 in FBS-supplemented conditions. Calculation of the partition coefficients for PG indicated that there was synthesis of low molecular weight PG in serum-free conditions and larger sized proteoglycans in FBS-supplemented conditions. Proteoglycan molecular size was unchanged by the addition of TGF-β1. Total DNA content of chondrocytes increased with the addition of TGF-β1 in FBS-supplemented conditions and decreased in serum-free conditions.

Conclusions

In a solid three-dimensional fibrin matrix, the effects of TGF-β1 on chondrocyte biological activity depend on the culture duration and on the presence of FBS in the medium. Stimulatory effects of TGF-β1 were most pronounced in serum-free culture conditions with high concentration of TGF-β1 (5 and 10 ng/ml) on day 7 and with low concentration of TGF-β1 (1 ng/ml) on day 14.

Clinical Relevance

TGF-β1 may not be a suitable growth factor for enhancement of equine articular grafting in sites exposed to serum. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:66–70)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare dialysate sodium concentration and patient plasma sodium concentration of dogs during intermittent hemodialysis treatments.

SAMPLE 211 intermittent hemodialysis treatments performed on 40 client-owned dogs for the management of dialysis-dependent uremia.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed to determine the plasma sodium concentration of each dog before and after routine hemodialysis treatments. Associations between detected changes in plasma sodium concentration and dialysate sodium concentration were evaluated by use of Spearman rank correlations and linear regression analysis.

RESULTS Significant linear correlations were found between the dialysate sodium concentration and patient sodium concentration. The starting dialysate-to-patient sodium gradient was associated with the strongest correlation to the change in patient sodium concentration at the end of the dialysis session. Modest correlations existed between the dialysate sodium concentration and postdialysis patient sodium concentration as well as between the predialysis dialysate-to-patient sodium gradient and postdialysis dialysate-to-patient sodium gradient.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The dialysate sodium concentration was correlated with the patient sodium concentration in dogs, and the dialysate-to-patient sodium gradient could be used to further refine this association to predict the postdialysis patient sodium concentration and potentially manage dysnatremia during hemodialysis. Prospective studies should be performed to determine how these associations can be used to correct aberrations as well as to avoid unwanted alterations in patient sodium concentrations.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Intracranial pressure (icp) and cerebral perfusion pressure (cpp) were determined in 8 clinically normal neonatal foals. After the foals oriented themselves and nursed the mares, they were sedated as necessary, and local anesthesia was provided for making the skin incisions. Using a technique similar to that used in human beings, an indwelling subdural catheter was placed to measure icp. Carotid artery catheterization was used to measure arterial blood pressure. Cerebral perfusion pressure was calculated as the difference between mean arterial blood pressure and icp.

Intracranial pressure and cpp readings were taken twice during each 24-hour period, starting at 6 hours of age and continuing through 72 hours of age. Mean (± sd) icp were 5.83 ± 1.82, 8.81 ± 2.06, and 9.55 ± 1.55 mm of Hg (range, 2 to 15 mm of Hg), and mean cpp were 80.19 ± 10.34, 75.30 ± 10.86, and 76.80 ± 12.59 mm of Hg (range, 50 to 109 mm of Hg) for each of the first three 24-hour periods after birth, respectively. All 8 foals had physical and neurologic examinations, csf analysis, and computerized axial tomography evaluations. The foals manifested normal behavior during the interval of measurements, and adverse effects of the procedure were not detected during the monitoring period. Establishment of normal values for icp and cpp are important to clinicians who have the opportunity to apply this technique for monitoring and evaluating neonatal foals with signs of cns dysfunction.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Microvascular permeability of the jejunum of clinically normal equids and microvascular permeability associated with 60 minutes of ischemia (25% baseline blood flow) and subsequent reperfusion were investigated. Eight adult horses were randomly allotted to 2 equal groups: normal and ischemic/reperfusion injury. Lymphatic flow rates, mesenteric blood flow, and lymph and plasma protein concentrations were determined at 15-minute intervals throughout the study. Microvascular permeability was determined by estimates of the osmotic reflection coefficient, which was determined when the ratio of lymphatic protein to plasma protein concentration reached a constant minimal value as lymph flow rate increased (filtration-independent lymph flow rate), which occurred at venous pressure of 30 mm of Hg. Full-thickness jejunal biopsy specimens were obtained at the beginning and end of each experiment, and were prepared for light microscopy to estimate tissue volume (edema) and for transmission electron microscopy to evaluate capillary endothelial cell morphology.

The osmotic reflection coefficient for normal equine jejunum was 0.19 ± 0.06, and increased significantly (P < 0.0001) to 0.48 ± 0.05 after the ische- mia/reperfusion period. Microscopic evaluation revealed a significant increase (P < 0.0001) in submucosal and serosal volume and capillary endothelial cell damage in horses that underwent ischemia/reperfusion injury. Results indicate that ischemia/re-perfusion of the equine jejunum caused a significant increase in microvascular permeability.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of dorsal versus lateral recumbency on the cardiopulmonary system during isoflurane anesthesia in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

Animals—6 adult 1.1- to 1.6-kg red-tailed hawks.

Procedures—A randomized, crossover study was used to evaluate changes in respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute ventilation, heart rate, mean arterial and indirect blood pressures, and end-tidal Pco 2 measured every 5 minutes plus Paco 2 and Pao 2 and arterial pH measured every 15 minutes throughout a 75-minute study period.

Results—Respiratory rate was higher, tidal volume lower, and minute ventilation not different in lateral versus dorsal recumbency. Position did not affect heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, or indirect blood pressure, although heart rate decreased during the anesthetic period. Birds hypoventilated in both positions and Paco 2 differed with time and position × time interaction. The Petco 2 position × time interaction was significant and Petco 2 was a mean of 7 Torr higher than Paco 2. The Paco 2 in dorsal recumbency was a mean of 32 Torr higher than in lateral recumbency. Birds in both positions developed respiratory acidosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Differences in tidal volume with similar minute ventilation suggested red-tailed hawks in dorsal recumbency might have lower dead space ventilation. Despite similar minute ventilation in both positions, birds in dorsal recumbency hypoventilated more yet maintained higher Pao 2, suggesting parabronchial ventilatory or pulmonary blood flow distribution changes with position. The results refute the hypothesis that dorsal recumbency compromises ventilation and O2 transport more than lateral recumbency in red-tailed hawks.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the short-term cardiovascular effects of IV administration of dipyrone (metamizole) as an intraoperative analgesic during total IV anesthesia with propofol.

Animals—6 healthy female New Zealand White rabbits.

Procedures—Anesthesia was induced with propofol (4.0 to 8.0 mg/kg, IV) and maintained with the same drug (1.2 to 1.3 mg/kg/min, IV). After induction, 3 doses of dipyrone (65 mg/kg each) were administered IV at 25-minute intervals. Before and for 10 minutes after each dipyrone injection, the following vascular and hemodynamic variables were recorded at the left common carotid artery every minute after the first injection: vessel diameter; peak systolic, minimum diastolic, end-diastolic, and mean blood flow velocities; mean volumetric flow; resistance and pulsatility indices; mean arterial blood pressure (MAP); heart rate; arterial oxygen saturation (SpO 2); and end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PETCO 2). Echocardiography was performed after the second injection. The same variables were measured at the abdominal aorta (AA) after the third injection.

Results—Dipyrone injections caused a significant, transient decrease in the resistance index at the AA. Also detected were a minor decrease in pulsatility index at the left common carotid artery and a minor increase in end-diastolic blood flow velocity at the AA. The MAP, heart rate, SpO 2, and PETCO 2 did not significantly change after injections. A comparison of HR and MAP after the first and third bolus injections revealed only minor changes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dipyrone used with propofol anesthesia in rabbits appeared not to significantly impair cardiovascular and hemodynamic function.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate short-term cardiovascular effects after IV administration of boluses of fentanyl in rabbits.

Animals—6 healthy New Zealand White rabbits.

Procedures—Each rabbit was anesthetized with propofol (4.0 to 8.0 mg/kg, IV); anesthesia was maintained by administration of propofol (1.2 to 1.3 mg/kg/min, IV). Subsequently, 3 injections of fentanyl (0.0053 mg/kg) were administered. Before and for 10 minutes after injections, the following variables were measured: vessel diameter, peak systolic blood flow velocity, minimum diastolic blood flow velocity, end-diastolic blood flow velocity, time-average blood flow velocity, mean volumetric flow (VFmean), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index for the left common carotid artery after the first injection and abdominal aorta after the third injection; mean arterial pressure (MAP); heart rate (HR); arterial oxygen saturation; end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide; and body temperature. Echocardiography was performed after the second injection.

Results—Fentanyl injections caused a transient and significant decrease in diameter and VFmean of the abdominal aorta and end-diastolic blood flow velocity of the left common carotid artery and an increase in peak systolic blood flow velocity and RI of the left common carotid artery. Also, MAP, HR, and body temperature decreased significantly after injections.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Fentanyl injections induced a short-term decrease of vessel diameter in the abdominal aorta and increased resistance in the distal distribution area of the left common carotid artery. Results revealed decreases in MAP, HR, and body temperature, with an increasing effect after the third bolus injection, which indicated a cumulative drug effect.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research