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Abstract

Objective—To develop a clinically applicable technique for recording cord dorsum potentials (CDPs) following stimulation of the radial and ulnar nerves and establish reference values for radial and ulnar sensory nerve conduction velocities (SNCVs) in the wings of ducks.

Animals—8 clinically normal adult female mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

Procedures—Radial and ulnar compound nerve action potentials (CNAPs) and CDPs were recorded following distal sensory nerve stimulation. The CDPs were recorded from the interarcuate space between the last cervical vertebra and the first thoracic vertebra. Surgical dissection and transection of the brachial plexus in 1 anesthetized duck were performed to identify nerve root location and confirm functional loss of nerve conduction assessed by loss of the CDP.

Results—Radial and ulnar CNAPs and CDPs were consistently recorded in all birds. Median radial SNCV was 38.3 m/s (range, 36.0 to 49.0 m/s), and ulnar SNCV was 35.3 m/s (range, 28.0 to 40.0 m/s). Surgical transection of the brachial plexus resulted in complete loss of the CDP.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Measurement of radial and ulnar SNCV or CDP is feasible in isoflurane-anesthetized mallard ducks. The CDP accurately reflects sensory nerve conduction through the brachial plexus. Assessment of brachial plexus function in mallard ducks via evaluations of SNCVs and CDPs may have application for diagnosis of traumatic injuries to the brachial plexus, evaluation of neuropathies associated with exposure to toxic chemicals, and assessment of the efficacy of interventions such as brachial plexus nerve blockade.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess the use of CSF testing with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) caused by Sarcocystis neurona.

Sample Population—Test results of 428 serum and 355 CSF samples from 182 naturally exposed, experimentally infected, or vaccinated horses.

Procedure—EPM was diagnosed on the basis of histologic examination of the CNS. Probability distributions were fitted to serum IFAT results in the EPM+ and EPM-horses, and correlation between serum and CSF results was modeled. Pairs of serum-CSF titers were generated by simulation, and titer-specific likelihood ratios and post-test probabilities of EPM at various pretest probability values were estimated. Post-test probabilities were compared for use of a serum-CSF test combination, a serum test only, and a CSF test only.

Results—Post-test probabilities of EPM increased as IFAT serum and CSF titers increased. Post-test probability differences for use of a serum-CSF combination and a serum test only were ≤ 19% in 95% of simulations. The largest increases occurred when serum titers were from 40 to 160 and pre-test probabilities were from 5% to 60%. In all simulations, the difference between pre- and post-test probabilities was greater for a CSF test only, compared with a serum test only.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CSF testing after a serum test has limited usefulness in the diagnosis of EPM. A CSF test alone might be used when CSF is required for other procedures. Ruling out other causes of neurologic disease reduces the necessity of additional EPM testing.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

): S67 – S75 . 10.1093/mmy/myy113 4. Blair JE . Coccidioidal meningitis: update on epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and management . Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2009 ; 11 ( 4 ): 289 – 295 . 10.1007/s11908-009-0043-1 5. Pryor WH

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

A , Franti CE . Canine intervertebral disk disease: characterization by age, sex, breed, and anatomic site of involvement . Am J Vet Res 1970 ; 31 : 1687 – 1692 . 19 Borenstein D . Epidemiology, etiology

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

.0501. Fort Collins, Colo : USDA, APHIS, Veterinary Services, Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, National Animal Health Monitoring System , 2001 . 2. Bentz BG Ealey KA Morrow J , et al. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

WP III . Epidemiology of spasticity following traumatic spinal cord injury . Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1990 ; 71 : 566 – 569 . 2. Sköld C , Levi R , Seiger A . Spasticity after traumatic spinal cord injury: nature, severity and location

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

TJ , et al. Epidemiology of equine motor neuron disease . Vet Res 1994 ; 25 : 275 – 278 . 17 de la Rua-Domenech R Mohammed HO Atwill ER , et al. Epidemiologic evidence for clustering of

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research