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Abstract

Objective—To determine gene expression of selected molecular markers (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, procalcitonin [PCT], and transforming growth factor [TGF]-β) in the blood of healthy and sick foals.

Animals—28 sick foals without sepsis, 21 foals with sepsis, and 21 healthy foals.

Procedures—Total RNA was extracted from blood samples and converted into complementary DNA (cDNA). Gene expression was measured for the molecular markers by use of real-time PCR assay, and final quantitation was performed with the comparative threshold cycle method.

Results—Samples from all foals yielded transcription for all markers. Expression of TNF-α and TGF-β was significantly lower and that of IL-8 significantly greater in the sick-nonseptic and septic groups, compared with the healthy group. No significant difference in expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and PCT was found between the healthy group and the 2 sick groups. Expression of IL-10 was significantly greater in nonsurvivors, compared with survivors.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The cytokine profile in foals with sepsis may suggest an immunosuppressive state. Expression of IL-10 may be a marker for identification of foals with a guarded prognosis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine gene transcription for cytokines in nucleated cells in CSF of horses without neurologic signs or with cervical stenotic myelopathy (CSM), West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis, equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), or spinal cord trauma.

Animals—41 horses (no neurologic signs [n = 12], CSM [8], WNV encephalitis [9], EPM [6], and spinal cord trauma [6]).

Procedures—Total RNA was extracted from nucleated cells and converted into cDNA. Gene expression was measured by use of real-time PCR assay and final quantitation via the comparative threshold cycle method.

Results—Cytokine genes expressed by nucleated cells of horses without neurologic signs comprised a balance between proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-10 and transforming growth factor [TGF]-β), and Th1 mediators (interferon [IFN]-γ). Cells of horses with CSM mainly expressed genes for TNF-α, TGF-β, and IL-10. Cells of horses with WNV encephalitis mainly expressed genes for IL-6 and TGF-β. Cells of horses with EPM mainly had expression of genes for IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and TGF-β. Cells from horses with spinal cord trauma had expression mainly for IL-6; IFN-γ; TGF-β; and less frequently, IL-2, IL-10, and TNF-α. Interleukin-8 gene expression was only detected in CSF of horses with infectious diseases.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Despite the small number of CSF samples for each group, results suggest distinct gene signatures expressed by nucleated cells in the CSF of horses without neurologic signs versus horses with inflammatory or traumatic neurologic disorders.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, Olympus, Tokyo, Japan. p. Olympus DP72 Digital Camera, Olympus, Tokyo, Japan. q. Olympus UPlan FLN, Olympus, Tokyo, Japan. References 1. USDA APHIS Veterinary Services Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health . Part I: baseline reference of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Assoc 1991 ; 199 : 968 . 2. Hendrick MJ Goldschmidt MH Shofer FS , Postvaccinal sarcomas in the cat: epidemiology and electron probe microanalytical identification of aluminum . Cancer Res 1992 ; 52 : 5391 – 5394 . 3. Esplin DG

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research