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the use of fluoroquinolones in food animals . Microb Drug Resist 2000 ; 6 : 77 – 83 . 10.1089/mdr.2000.6.77 10. USDA Agricultural Research Service . Bacterial epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance. National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The efficacy of dihydrostreptomycin in stopping the shedding of Leptospira hardjo subtype hardjobovis was studied in naturally infected cows. Blood and urine samples were collected from dairy cows kept on a farm where the farmer had contracted L hardjobovis infection. A microscopic agglutination test and an ELISA were used to determine specific antibody responses in serum. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect bacterial shedding in urine. On the first sample collection date, 6 cows were seropositive, and 3 of those shed leptospires in the urine. These 3 cows were treated once with 25 mg of dihydrostreptomycin/ kg of body weight. Within 1 week, the 3 cows stopped shedding leptospires. Six weeks later, 8 more lactating cows were found to be shedding leptospires. These cows were also treated once with dihydrostreptomycin, and they too stopped shedding leptospires within 1 week. From then on, the whole herd was examined weekly for a period of 2 months, and all cows Leptospira-positive by polymerase chain reaction were treated once with dihydrostreptomycin. Again, all cows stopped shedding leptospires in the urine within 1 week after treatment with dihydrostreptomycin. After a single treatment of the whole herd at the same time, new infections were not seen.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

From Aug 1985 through July 1986, 720 meat turkey flocks on 160 California premises were monitored and outbreaks of fowl cholera (Pasteurella multocida) were investigated. Data from 43 outbreak (case) flocks were compared with data from 43 nonoutbreak (control) flocks. Outbreak flocks, compared with control flocks, were more likely to be located on premises with higher maximal bird capacity and history of fowl cholera outbreaks. The overall impression was that flocks in larger, newer, more intensively managed premises were at greater risk of fowl cholera outbreaks than were other flocks.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Pili have been implicated as virulence factors that result in increased infcctivity of Moraxella bovis, the causative agent of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (ibk). Healthy calves' eyes were inoculated with I- or Q-piliate or nonpiliate M bovis Epp63 to compare the pathogenicity of these isogenic variants. Pathogenicity was determined by the rate of persistent M bovis infection and the prevalence of clinical IBK. Inoculation with M bovis expressing the Q pili resulted in the highest frequency of infection and ibk, whereas I-piliate M bovis elicited a lower rate and nonpiliate M bovis did not result in infection.

In vivo pilin gene rearrangement and pilin-type switching were evaluated by DNA hybridization and immunoblot. Gene rearrangement and type switching varied dependently, and were observed only in eyes inoculated with Q-piliate M bovis. This study suggests that Q pili are specific for colonization of bovine corneal epithelium, whereas I pili enable maintenance of an established infection.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether a humoral response against spirochetes isolated from papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) lesions is elicited in dairy cattle affected with PDD.

Sample Population

41 cattle with PDD from 8 dairies (study population) and 30 cattle from 2 dairies free of PDD (control population). Additionally evaluated were 32 cattle from a dairy with a past history of PDD but no current disease, and 52 cattle from a dairy with high prevalence of PDD, 25 with and 27 without detectable lesions.

Procedure

ELISA were used to evaluate the humoral response of all cattle to representative isolates from 2 groups of spirochetes of unknown species isolated from PDD lesions. Specificity of the response was evaluated, using immune sera prepared against each of the spirochetes, and by adsorption studies of immune and field sera. The potential for confounding by an antibody response to other spirochetes associated with diseases of cattle was assessed.

Results

The antibody response (specific) to both PDD spirochete groups of cows with PDD was significantly increased, compared with that of cows from PDD-free dairies. There was no association between antibody response to PDD-associated spirochetes and antibody response to other spirochetal diseases of cattle. None of the cattle from the dairy with previous history of PDD but without current disease were classified as test positive by either PDD ELISA. There was a significant (P < 0.01) difference in classification results for both PDD ELISA for cattle with PDD from the dairy with a high herd prevalence of PDD, compared with cattle without detectable disease from the same dairy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

The humoral response in cattle with PDD lesions was significantly different from that in cattle without detectable lesions, thus providing additional information regarding the potential role of spirochetes isolated from PDD lesions in the etiopathogenesis of PDD. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:744–748)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

A retrospective study was designed to determine the distribution of equine monocytic ehrlichiosis among the equine population in New York state, and to identify factors associated with risk of disease. Serum samples submitted to the diagnostic laboratory of the university during the period from January 1985 through December 1986 were examined for antibodies to Ehrlichia risticii, using the indirect fluorescent antibody technique. Factors evaluated included geographic origin and date of submission of the sample, and age, breed, and sex of the horse. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify which factors were significantly associated with the risk of seropositivity to E risticii, while simultaneously controlling for other factors.

Of the 2,579 tested samples, 1,950 (76%) had positive results. Factors significantly associated with risk of seropositivity to E risticii were: breed of the horse (Thoroughbreds were 3 times more likely to have been exposed to E risticii, compared with non-Standardbred, non-Thoroughbred breeds); sex (female horses were 2.7 times more likely to have been exposed, compared with male horses); age of the horse (the risk of being exposed to E risticii increased with age, peaked at around 12 years, and decreased thereafter); and month of submission (horses tested during November and December had the highest odds of being seropositive [odds ratio = 2.1], and horses tested during March through April were least likely to be seropositive [odds ratio = 0.5], compared with horses tested during January and February).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To assess shedding of ovine lentivirus (OvLV) in semen of infected rams with or without epididymitis.

Design

Rams 1 and 2 were naturally infected with OvLV. Rams 3-6 were inoculated with OvLV strain 85/ 34. Ram 7 was inoculated with uninfected cell culture supernatatant (OvLV-negative control). 14 weeks after OvLV inoculation, rams 1-3, 6, and 7 were inoculated with Brucella ovis into the epididymis. Ram 4 was a natural case of B ovis epididymitis, and ram 5 was left non-inoculated (Bovis-negative control). Blood mononuclear cells (BMNC) and semen were collected between 0 and 44 weeks after OvLV inoculation.

Animals

Seven 2- to 3-year-old rams.

Procedure

Infective OvLV in BMNC and semen was determined by virus isolation and subsequent OvLV-DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bronchoalveolar lavage cells collected after death were used for DNA extraction and PCR amplification.

Results

OvLV was detected in the semen of rams 3 and 6, but only after Bovis inoculation. OvLV was isolated consistently from BMNC of rams 3 and 6, but only occasionally from rams 1, 2, 4, and 5. Leukocytospermia was evident in every ejaculate of all Bovis-infected rams after infection. Semiquantitative PCR determination of OvLV DNA from bronchoalveolar lavage cells revealed the highest OvLV DNA load in rams 3 and 6.

Conclusions

Leukocytospermia and a high virus load in infected animals are important factors that determine shedding of OvLV in semen.

Clinical Relevance

Dissemination of OvLV through contaminated semen could have important implications in the epidemiology and control of this infection. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:684–688)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether the active metabolite of leflunomide, A77 1726 (A77), inhibits replication of feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) in cell culture.

Study Population—Crandell Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cell cultures.

Procedures—Cell cultures were inoculated with FHV-1 and treated simultaneously with concentrations of A77 ranging from 0 to 200μM. The antiviral effect of A77 was determined by use of conventional plaque reduction assays. The effect of A77 on viral load was determined via real-time PCR analysis, and transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate the effect of A77 on viral morphology. To determine whether the antiviral effect was attributable to alterations in CRFK cell viability and number, CRFK cells were treated with various concentrations of A77 and stained with Annexin V and propidium iodide to assess apoptosis and a mitochondrial function assay was used to determine cell viability.

Results—Concentrations of A77 ≥ 20μM were associated with substantial reduction in plaque number and viral load. Concentrations ≥ 100μM were associated with complete suppression of plaque formation. At low concentrations of A77, clusters of intracytoplasmic virus particles that appeared to lack tegument and an external membrane were detected. Treatment of uninfected CRFK cell monolayers with A77 was associated with reduction in mitochondrial function with minimal evidence of apoptosis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Leflunomide may be an alternative to current calcineurin-based immunosuppressive protocols used in feline organ transplantation because of its antiherpesviral activity.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Escherichia coli phylogenetic group . Appl Environ Microbiol 2000 ; 66 : 4555 – 4558 . 10.1128/AEM.66.10.4555-4558.2000 25. Blanco M Alonso MP Nicolas-Chanoine MH , et al. Molecular epidemiology of Escherichia coli producing extended

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, Donglou X , Jiming Y . Epidemiology and control of brucellosis in China . Vet Microbiol 2002 ; 90 : 165 – 182 . 10.1016/S0378-1135(02)00252-3 4. Research Group of Brucellosis (Harbin Veterinary Research Institute) . Study on the Brucella

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research