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Abstract

Objective—To determine ultrasonographic characteristics of the thyroid gland in healthy small-, medium-, and large-breed dogs and evaluate the relationships of thyroid gland size and volume with body weight and body surface area (BSA).

Animals—72 dogs of small (6 Toy and 6 Miniature Poodles), medium (12 Beagles), and large breeds (12 Akitas and 36 Golden Retrievers).

Procedure—Each dog's thyroid gland was examined ultrasonographically with a 10- to 5-MHz multifrequency linear-array transducer. Size, shape, echogenicity, and homogeneity of thyroid lobes were evaluated on longitudinal and transverse images. Thyroid lobe volume was estimated by use of the equation for an ellipsoid (π/6 [length × height × width]).

Results—Thyroid lobes appeared fusiform or elliptical on longitudinal images and triangular or round to oval on transverse images. In most dogs, thyroid lobes were hyperechoic or isoechoic, compared with surrounding musculature, and had a homogeneous echogenic pattern. Mean length, width, height, and volume of thyroid lobes were significantly greater in Akitas and Golden Retrievers, compared with findings in Beagles or Poodles; mean length, width, and height were significantly greater in Beagles, compared with findings in Poodles. Total thyroid gland volume correlated with body weight (r = 0.73) and BSA (r = 0.74).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Among the dog breeds examined ultrasonographically, thyroid lobe size and volume were more variable than shape, echogenicity, and homogeneity. The correlation of thyroid gland volume with BSA suggests that size of the dog, rather than breed, should be considered when assessing thyroid glands ultrasonographically.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the use of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) for the assessment of prostatic tumors in dogs and to compare results for TRUS with results for other imaging modalities.

ANIMALS

10 client-owned male dogs.

PROCEDURES

Client-owned dogs identified with prostatic carcinoma were enrolled. Fluoroscopy, transabdominal ultrasonography (TAUS), TRUS, and MRI were performed on all dogs. Tumor measurements, urethral penetration (identification of abnormal tissue within the urethral lumen), and tumor extension into the urinary tract were recorded for all imaging modalities. Agreement between results for MRI (considered the criterion-referenced standard) and results for other modalities were compared.

RESULTS

Median body weight of the 10 dogs was 26.3 kg (range, 9.4 to 49.5 kg). No complications were encountered during or after TRUS. Significant moderate to good agreements (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.60 to 0.86) among TAUS, TRUS, fluoroscopy, and MRI were identified for tumor length and height. Assessments of urethral penetration and tumor extension into the bladder with TRUS did not differ significantly from those made with MRI and were superior in terms of absolute agreement with MRI when compared with those for TAUS.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

TRUS was successfully and safely used to evaluate prostatic carcinoma in dogs. There was moderate to good agreement with MRI results for tumor height and length measurements, and TRUS was found to be superior to TAUS for some assessments. Transrectal ultrasonography can be considered an adjunctive imaging modality for the performance of prostatic interventional procedures or assessment of response to treatment.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine anatomic reference points for 4 turtle species and to evaluate data on relative anatomic dimensions, signal intensities (SIs), and position of selected organs within the coelomic cavity by use of MRI.

ANIMALS 3 turtle cadavers (1 red-eared slider [Trachemys scripta elegans], 1 yellow-bellied slider [Trachemys scripta scripta], and 1 Coastal plain cooter [Pseudemys concinna floridana]) and 63 live adult turtles (30 red-eared sliders, 20 yellow-bellied sliders, 5 Coastal plain cooters, and 8 hieroglyphic river cooters [Pseudemys concinna hieroglyphica]).

PROCEDURES MRI and necropsy were performed on the 3 turtle cadavers. Physical examination, hematologic evaluation, and whole-body radiography were performed on the 63 live turtles. Turtles were sedated, and MRI in transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes was used to measure organ dimensions, position within the coelomic cavity, and SIs. Body positioning after sedation was standardized with the head, neck, limbs, and tail positioned in maximum extension.

RESULTS Measurements of the heart, liver, gallbladder, and kidneys in sagittal, transverse, and dorsal planes; relative position of those organs within the coelom; and SIs of the kidneys and liver were obtained with MRI and provided anatomic data for these 4 turtle species.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE MRI was a valuable tool for determining the position, dimensions, and SIs of selected organs. Measurement of organs in freshwater chelonians was achievable with MRI. Further studies are needed to establish reference values for anatomic structures in turtles. Results reported here may serve as guidelines and aid in clinical interpretation of MRI images for these 4 species.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate radiation exposure of dogs and cats undergoing procedures requiring intraoperative fluoroscopy and for operators performing those procedures.

SAMPLE

360 fluoroscopic procedures performed at 2 academic institutions between 2012 and 2015.

PROCEDURES

Fluoroscopic procedures were classified as vascular, urinary, respiratory, cardiac, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic. Fluoroscopy operators were classified as interventional radiology-trained clinicians, orthopedic surgeons, soft tissue surgeons, internists, and cardiologists. Total radiation exposure in milligrays and total fluoroscopy time in minutes were obtained from dose reports for 4 C-arm units. Kruskal-Wallis equality of populations rank tests and Dunn pairwise comparisons were used to compare differences in time and exposure among procedures and operators.

RESULTS

Fluoroscopy time (median, 35.80 minutes; range, 0.60 to 84.70 minutes) was significantly greater and radiation exposure (median, 137.00 mGy; range, 3.00 to 617.51 mGy) was significantly higher for vascular procedures than for other procedures. Median total radiation exposure was significantly higher for procedures performed by interventional radiology-trained clinicians (16.10 mGy; range, 0.44 to 617.50 mGy), cardiologists (25.82 mGy; range, 0.33 to 287.45 mGy), and internists (25.24 mGy; range, 3.58 to 185.79 mGy).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Vascular fluoroscopic procedures were associated with significantly longer fluoroscopy time and higher radiation exposure than were other evaluated fluoroscopic procedures. Future studies should focus on quantitative radiation monitoring for patients and operators, importance of operator training, intraoperative safety measures, and protocols for postoperative monitoring of patients.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To quantify left ventricle (LV) volumes by use of 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D echocardiography versus MRI in dogs.

Animals—10 healthy Beagles.

Procedures—During anesthesia, each dog underwent an echocardiographic examination via the Teichholz method, performed on the basis of standard M-mode frames (1-D); the monoplane Simpson method of disk (via 2-D loops); real-time triplane echocardiography (RTTPE) with a 3-D probe; and real-time 3-D echocardiography with a 3-D probe. Afterward, cardiac MRI was performed. Values for the LV end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), and ejection fraction (EF) were compared between each echocardiographic method and the reference method (cardiac MRI).

Results—No significant differences for EDV, ESV, and EF were detected between RTTPE and cardiac MRI. Excellent correlations (r = 0.97, 0.98, and 0.95 for EDV, ESV, and EF, respectively) were found between RTTPE and values for cardiac MRI. The other echocardiographic methods yielded values significantly different from cardiac MRI and results correlated less well with results of cardiac MRI for EDV, ESV, and EF. Use of the Teichholz method resulted in LV volume overestimation, whereas the Simpson method of disk and real-time 3-D echocardiography significantly underestimated LV volumes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of RTTPE yielded excellent correlations and nonsignificant differences with cardiac MRI and is a suitable method for routine veterinary cardiac examination.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the degree of fluctuation in tracheal dimensions between forced inspiration and passive expiration in healthy dogs of various sizes.

Animals—10 client-owned dogs with no evidence of respiratory disease or tracheal collapse.

Procedures—Anesthetized dogs underwent a computed tomographic examination during forced inspiration and induced but passive expiration to assess tracheal dimensions. Tracheal height, width, and cross-sectional area were measured at inspiration and expiration, and percentage change in dimension was calculated for each variable.

Results—Measurements were acquired in 10 dogs that ranged in body weight from 3.5 to 47.8 kg. Tracheal cross-sectional area at inspiration and expiration was associated with body weight at all 3 tracheal regions. The percentage change in tracheal height and cross-sectional area was associated with body weight in the cervical but not the thoracic-inlet or thoracic regions. The tracheal cross-sectional area changed by as much as 24.2% (mean, 5.5%), 20.0% (mean, 6.0%), and 18.6% (mean, 6.0%) in the cervical, thoracic-inlet, and thoracic regions, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The change in tracheal cross-sectional area from inspiration to expiration was as great as 24% in healthy dogs, and the area was associated with body weight. Respiratory fluctuations appeared to result in changes in tracheal dimension during respiration similar to those reported for humans.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of imaging plane, flexion and extension, patient weight, and observer on computed tomographic (CT) image measurements of the area of the lumbosacral (L7-S1) intervertebral foramen (LSIF) in dogs.

Sample—12 dog cadavers (2 were excluded because of foraminal stenosis).

Procedures—In each cadaver, sagittal, sagittal oblique, transverse oblique, and double oblique CT images were obtained at 3 zones (entrance, middle, and exit zones) of the region of the lateral lumbar spinal canal that comprises the LSIF while the lumbosacral junction (LSJ) was positioned in flexion or extension. Barium-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate was used to fill the intervertebral foramina to aid boundary detection. Measurements of interest were obtained.

Results—Among the dog cadavers, there was large variability in LSIF cross-sectional areas (range, 0.12 to 0.44 cm2; SD, 0.1 cm2) and in foraminal angles required to obtain a double oblique plane in LSJ extension (SD, 8° to 9°). For LSIF area measurements in standard sagittal CT images, interobserver variability was 23% to 44% and intraobserver variability was 4% to 5%. Sagittal oblique images obtained during LSJ extension yielded smaller mean LSIF areas (0.30 cm2), compared with findings in sagittal images (0.37 to 0.52 cm2). The exit and middle zone areas were smaller than the entrance zone area in sagittal images obtained during LSJ extension.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Repeated measurements of the LSIF area in images obtained during LSJ extension may be unreliable as a result of interobserver variability and the effects of dog positioning and CT slice orientation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Clin North Am Equine Pract 1986 ; 2 : 253 – 258 . 10.1016/S0749-0739(17)30740-X 15 Dohoo IR Martin SW Stryhn H . Mixed models for continuous data . In: Veterinary epidemiology research . Charlottetown, PE : AVC-Inc , 2003 ; 473 – 498

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. J Orthop Res 1996 ; 14 : 794 – 801 . 10.1002/jor.1100140517 6. Verheyen KL Wood JL . Descriptive epidemiology of fractures occurring in British Thoroughbred racehorses in training . Equine Vet J 2004 ; 36 : 167 – 173 . 7. O

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Ventricular dimensions measured noninvasively by echocardiography in the awake dog . J Appl Physiol 1976 ; 41 : 953 – 959 . 10.1152/jappl.1976.41.6.953 3. Olsen LH , Fredholm M , Pedersen HD . Epidemiology and inheritance of mitral valve

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research