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M , Montilla S , Otero W , Marin JC . Tuberculosis (TB) outbreak in a closed Aotus monkey breeding colony: epidemiology, diagnosis and TB screening using antibody and interferon-gamma release testing . Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate a bench-top coagulation analyzer for determination of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and fibrinogen concentration in healthy dogs.

Animals—55 healthy adult dogs.

Procedures—PT, APTT, and fibrinogen concentration were determined by use of the coagulation analyzer. Values were compared with results obtained independently by a conventional laboratory.

Results—Correlations (with 95% confidence intervals) between the coagulation analyzer and conventional laboratory values were 0.760 (0.610 to 0.857), 0.700 (0.448 to 0.721), and 0.896 (0.878 to 0.918) for PT, APTT, and fibrinogen concentration, respectively. Using linear regression, comparison of data from the coagulation analyzer and the conventional laboratory provided equations relating the coagulation analyzer values with values from the conventional laboratory and suggested that APTT and fibrinogen values from the coagulation analyzer and conventional laboratory were approximately the same within expected random variation. Prothrombin time values for the coagulation analyzer were significantly offset from the PT values for the conventional laboratory but still were correlated reasonably well with the conventional laboratory values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—By use of the mechanical method of analysis, fibrinogen concentrations obtained with a bench-top coagulation analyzer correlated well with results for a conventional laboratory, indicating that the coagulation analyzer is a reliable instrument for determination of this coagulation variable. Coagulation analyzer results for PT and APTT correlated less strongly with those for the conventional laboratory, but they would still be considered clinically reliable.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Cerebrospinal fluid samples from 2 groups of clinically normal dogs were compared after iopamidol (n = 9) and metrizamide (n = 8) myelography. Iopamidol (200 mg of I/ml) and metrizamide (170 mg of I/ml) were administered by cerebellomedullary injection at dosage of 0.45 ml/kg of body weight. In dogs of both groups, postmyelographic csf changes included high specific gravity, Pandy score, protein concentration, and wbc count. The high specific gravity and Pandy score were false-positive effects attributed to nonionic contrast media. Although postmyelographic protein concentration and total wbc count were greater in csf samples from dogs given metrizamide than in those given iopamidol, differences were not statistically significant. The differential wbc counts were consistent with mild, acute leptomeningitis; these findings were supported by results of histologic examination. Iopamidol and metrizamide should be considered low-grade leptomeningeal irritants in dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

To evaluate renal function and obtain reference values for measurements of urinary excretion of various substances, quantitative urinalysis was performed in healthy, growing kittens from 4 to 30 weeks after birth. Endogenous creatinine clearance, 24-hour urine protein excretion, and urine protein-to-creatinine ratio were determined. Additionally, fractional excretion to creatinine clearance was calculated for calcium, inorganic phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and chloride. Mean ± SD endogenous creatinine clearance values (range, 3.80 ± 0.48 to 4.74 ± 0.61 ml/min/kg) were significantly (P < 0.0001) higher in kittens 9 to 19 weeks old, compared with younger (range, 1.39 ± 0.85 to 3.59 ± 0.86 ml/min/kg) and older kittens (range, 2.69 ± 0.40 to 3.46 ± 0.37 ml/min/kg). Mean values for all kittens for 24-hour urine protein excretion (range, 2.54 ± 1.81 mg/kg at 4 weeks to 11.39 ± 7.61 mg/kg at 14 weeks) and for urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (range, 0.14 ± 0.03 to 0.34 ± 0.18) varied from week to week of age. The urine protein-to-creatinine ratio in kittens > 9 weeks old correlated well (R2 = 0.861) with 24-hour urine protein excretion. Urinary fractional excretion of calcium, inorganic phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and chloride in kittens varied among age groups, being significantly (P < 0.01) different for potassium and calcium in young kittens (4 to 6 weeks) and older kittens (≥ 7 weeks).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Hematologic and serum biochemical values were determined in blood samples from 217 donkeys (Equus asinus). Donkeys were classified on the basis of size, sex, age, and whether they were domestic or feral. Parametric (mean ± 2 sd) and nonparametric (2.5th to 97.5th percentile) reference ranges were calculated for each analyte.

For all donkeys, 26 of 46 analytes significantly departed from gaussian distribution. Serum lactate dehydrogenase activity in miniature donkeys was higher than that in other donkeys. Differential leukocyte counts in feral donkeys differed from those in other types in ways that suggested that the former had smaller parasite loads or experienced greater stress. Erythrocyte, lymphocyte, and platelet counts and fibrinogen, glucose, inorganic phosphorus, and potassium concentrations decreased with age. Eosinophil counts, mean corpuscular volume, and plasma protein, serum protein, and serum globulin concentrations increased with age. Female donkeys had significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and leukocyte and neutrophil counts than did male donkeys. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin increased with age, and females had higher values than did males of all age groups. An interaction between age and sex was observed for alkaline phosphatase activity, with a trend for decreased activity with age.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare sensitivity and specificity of cytologic examination and 3 chromogen tests for detection of occult blood in cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) excrement.

Animals—20 adult cockatiels.

Procedures—Pooled blood from birds was divided into whole blood and lysate aliquots. Excrement was mixed with each aliquot in vitro to yield 6 hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations (range, 0.375 to 12.0 mg of Hb/g of excrement). For the in vivo portion of the study, birds were serially gavaged with each aliquot separately at 5 doses of Hb (range, 2.5 to 40 mg/kg). Three chromogen tests and cytologic examination were used to test excrement samples for occult blood. Sensitivity, specificity, and observer agreement were calculated.

Results—In vitro specificity ranged from 85%to 100% for the 3 chromogen tests and was 100% for cytologic examination. Sensitivity was 0% to 35% for cytologic examination and 100% for the 3 chromogen tests on samples containing ≥ 1.5 mg of Hb/g of excrement. In vivo specificity was 100%, 90%, 65%, and 45% for cytologic examination and the 3 chromogen tests, respectively. Sensitivity was 0% to 5% for cytologic examination and ≥ 75% for all 3 chromogen tests after birds received doses of Hb ≥ 20 mg/kg. Observer agreement was lowest for cytologic examination.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Chromogen tests were more useful than cytologic examination for detection of occult blood in cockatiel excrement. The best combination of sensitivity, specificity, and observer agreement was obtained by use of a chromogen test.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the usefulness of an antibody detection ELISA and protein electrophoresis (PE) for diagnosing Encephalitozoon cuniculi (ECUN) infection in pet rabbits.

Animals—203 pet rabbits.

Procedures—Serum and plasma samples from pet rabbits were submitted from veterinary clinics within the United States. Participating veterinarians completed a questionnaire that was used to classify rabbits as clinically normal (n=33), suspected of having an ECUN infection (103), or clinically abnormal but not suspected of having an ECUN infection (67). An ELISA for detection of serum or plasma IgG against ECUN was developed by use of commercially available reagents. Results of the ELISA and PE were used to detect ECUN infection.

Results—A high seroprevalence of antibody against ECUN was detected in all 3 groups of rabbits. In rabbits suspected of having an ECUN infection, the mean IgG titer was 1.7 times as high as the values in the other rabbit groups. Rabbits suspected of having an ECUN infection and those that were simply clinically abnormal had a higher concentration of γ-globulins than clinically normal rabbits. This increase in globulins concentration was accompanied by a decrease in the albumin-to-globulin ratio. Results of the ELISA and PE were significantly different between clinically normal rabbits and those suspected of having an ECUN infection.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The combination of an ELISA and PE may aid in the diagnosis of ECUN infection in pet rabbits.

Impact for Human Medicine—Because ECUN is a potential zoonotic agent, diagnostic methods for pet rabbits need to be improved to protect human health.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

comparisons . Epidemiology 1990 ; 1 : 43 – 46 . 10.1097/00001648-199001000-00010 65. Bender R , Lange S . Adjusting for multiple testing–when and how? J Clin Epidemiol 2001 ; 54 : 343 – 349 . 10.1016/S0895-4356(00)00314-0

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research