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Abstract

Objective—To develop a scoring system for histopathologic changes in the synovium of tarsocrural joints (TCJs) of horses with osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) and to test for association between histopathologic changes and joint effusion or lameness.

Animals—93 horses with OCD of the intermediate ridge of the tibia of 1 or both TCJs (134 joints) and 38 control horses without disease of TCJs (38 joints).

Procedures—For OCD-affected horses, pretreatment lameness, TCJ effusion, and results of pelvic limb flexion test were scored. Synovial biopsy specimens were obtained from TCJs of OCD-affected horses during arthroscopy, and similar postmortem tissue specimens were obtained from control horses through a small arthrotomy. Histologic signs of synovitis in 172 biopsy specimens were scored by 2 pathologists (A and B) by use of 2 criteria: synoviocyte proliferation and cellular infiltration.

Results—Analysis of scoring revealed good to very good intraobserver agreement within pathologist A (weighted kappa [WK], 0.76 to 0.81), and moderate to good agreement within pathologist B (WK, 0.56 to 0.63). Interobserver agreement for synoviocyte proliferation (WK, 0.34 to 0.52) and cellular infiltration (WK, 0.38 to 0.48) scores was fair to moderate. Joint effusion and synoviocyte proliferation were significantly associated, as were joint effusion and cellular infiltration. There was no association between histopathologic changes and the other clinical signs evaluated.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The scoring system was helpful for evaluating synovial inflammation caused by OCD of the intermediate ridge of the tibia in horses. Histopathologic signs of synovial inflammation were associated with effusion but not with lameness.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To quantify concentrations of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) and fibromodulin in synovial fluid from the tarsocrural joints (TCJs) of horses with osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the distal intermediate ridge of the tibia and determine whether concentrations would change following arthroscopic removal of osteochondral fragments.

ANIMALS 115 client-owned horses with OCD of the TCJ and 29 control horses euthanized for unrelated reasons.

PROCEDURES COMP and fibromodulin concentrations were measured in synovial fluid from the TCJs of the affected horses before and after osteochondral fragments were removed arthroscopically and in synovial fluid from the TCJs of the control horses after euthanasia. Synovial biopsy specimens from the TCJs of affected and control horses were examined histologically for evidence of inflammation.

RESULTS Synovial fluid COMP and fibromodulin concentrations prior to surgery in horses with OCD were not significantly different from concentrations in control horses. Fibromodulin, but not COMP, concentration in horses with OCD was significantly decreased after surgery, compared with the concentration before surgery. Fibromodulin concentration was significantly correlated with joint effusion score but not with lameness score or results of a flexion test and was correlated with histologic score for number of synoviocytes on the surface of the synovium but not with score for degree of infiltration of inflammatory cells in the synovium. Synovial fluid COMP concentration was not significantly correlated with clinical or histologic findings.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that fibromodulin, but not COMP, could potentially be a biomarker of joint inflammation in horses with OCD of the TCJ.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) features of healthy hyaline cartilage of the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) of horses, to determine whether dGEMRIC can be used to differentiate various stages of naturally occurring osteoarthritis of the DIPJ, and to correlate relaxation times determined by dGEMRIC with the glycosaminoglycan concentration, water content, and macroscopic and histologic findings of hyaline cartilage of DIPJs with and without osteoarthritis.

SAMPLE 1 cadaveric forelimb DIPJ from each of 12 adult warmblood horses.

PROCEDURES T1-weighted cartilage relaxation times were obtained for predetermined sites of the DIPJ before (T1preGd) and after (T1postGd) intra-articular gadolinium administration. Corresponding cartilage sites underwent macroscopic, histologic, and immunohistochemical evaluation, and cartilage glycosaminoglycan concentration and water content were determined. Median T1preGd and T1postGd were correlated with macroscopic, histologic, and biochemical data. Mixed generalized linear models were created to evaluate the effects of cartilage site, articular surface, and macroscopic and histologic scores on relaxation times.

RESULTS 122 cartilage specimens were analyzed. Median T1postGd was lower than the median T1preGd for normal and diseased cartilage. Both T1preGd and T1postGd were correlated with macroscopic and histologic scores, whereby T1preGd increased and T1postGd decreased as osteoarthritis progressed. There was topographic variation of T1preGd and T1postGd within the DIPJ. Cartilage glycosaminoglycan concentration and water content were significantly correlated with T1preGd and macroscopic and histologic scores but were not correlated with T1postGd.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that dGEMRIC relaxation times varied for DIPJs with various degrees of osteoarthritis. These findings may help facilitate early detection of osteoarthritis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare macrostructural and microstructural features of proximal sesamoid bones (PSBs) from horses with and without PSB midbody fracture to gain insight into the pathogenesis of PSB fracture.

Sample Population—PSBs from 16 Thoroughbred racehorses (8 with and 8 without a PSB midbody fracture).

Procedures—Parasagittal sections of fractured and contralateral intact PSBs from horses with a PSB fracture and an intact PSB from age- and sex-matched control horses without a PSB fracture were evaluated for visual, radiographic, microradiographic, histologic, and his-tomorphometric differences in bone porosity, vascular channels, heme pigment, trabecular anisotropy, and pathological findings.

Results—Fractured PSBs and their contralateral intact PSBs had more compacted trabecular bone than did control PSBs. Focal repair or remodeling was evident in the palmar aspect of many fractured and contralateral intact PSBs. Fracture coincided with microstructural features and propagated from the flexor to the articular surface.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Fractured PSBs had adapted to high loading but had focal evidence of excessive remodeling and porosity that likely predisposed the horses to complete fracture and catastrophic injury. Detection of focal injury before complete fracture provides an opportunity for prevention of catastrophic injury. Development of diagnostic imaging methods to assess porosity of PSBs may help to identify at-risk horses and allow for modifications of training and racing schedules to reduce the incidence of PSB fracture in Thoroughbred racehorses.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

1. National Animal Health Monitoring System . Part 1: baseline reference of 1998 equine health and management . Fort Collins, Colo : Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, Veterinary Services, APHIS, USDA , 1998 . 2. National Animal Health

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Part 1: baseline reference of 1998 equine health and management . In: National animal health monitoring system . Fort Collins, Colo : USDA, APHIS, Veterinary Services, Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health , 1998 . 2. NAHMS . Lameness and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

—Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health , 1998 . 2. National Animal Health Monitoring System . Lameness and laminitis in US horses . Fort Collins, Colo : USDA, APHIS, Veterinary Services—Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health , 2000 . 3

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

: 66 – 69 . 10.1136/vr.116.3.66 2. NAHMS . Part 1: Baseline reference of 1998 equine health and management . National Animal Health Monitoring System . Fort Collins, Colo : USDA APHIS, Veterinary Services-Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Johnson BJ , Stover SM , Daft BM , et al. Causes of death in racehorses over a 2-year period . Equine Vet J 1994 ; 26 : 327 – 330 . 10.1111/j.2042-3306.1994.tb04395.x 3. Verheyen KLP , Wood JLN . Descriptive epidemiology of fractures

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services—Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health , 1998 . 2 Rossdale PD Hopes R Digby NJ , et al . Epidemiological study of wastage among racehorses 1982 and 1983 . Vet Rec 1985

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research