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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the torsional mechanical properties of 2 external skeletal fixators (ESFs) placed with 2 intramedullary pin (IP) and transfixation pin (TP) size combinations in a model of raptor tibiotarsal bone fracture.

SAMPLE

24 ESF-synthetic tibiotarsal bone model (polyoxymethylene) constructs.

PROCEDURES

Synthetic bone models were fabricated with an 8-mm (simulated fracture) gap. Four types of ESF-synthetic bone model constructs (6/group) were tested: a FESSA with a 1.6-mm IP and 1.6-mm TPs, a FESSA with a 2.0-mm IP and 1.1-mm TPs, an acrylic connecting bar with a 1.6-mm IP and 1.6-mm TPs, and an acrylic connecting bar with a 2.0-mm IP and 1.1-mm TPs. Models were rotated in torsion (5°/s) to failure or the machine angle limit (80°). Mechanical variables at yield and at failure were determined from load deformation curves. Effects of overall construct type, connecting bar type, and IP and TP size combination on mechanical properties were assessed with mixed-model ANOVAs.

RESULTS

Both FESSA constructs had significantly greater median stiffness and median torque at yield than both acrylic bar constructs; FESSA constructs with a 1.6-mm IP and 1.6-mm TPs had greatest stiffness of all tested constructs and lowest gap strain at yield. No FESSA constructs failed during testing; 7 of 12 acrylic bar constructs failed by fracture of the connecting bar at the interface with a TP.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although acrylic bar ESFs have been successfully used in avian patients, the FESSA constructs in this study were mechanically superior to acrylic bar constructs, with greatest benefit resulting from use with the larger TP configuration.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe the torsional and axial compressive properties of tibiotarsal bones of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

SAMPLE 16 cadaveric tibiotarsal bones from 8 red-tailed hawks.

PROCEDURES 1 tibiotarsal bone from each bird was randomly assigned to be tested in torsion, and the contralateral bone was tested in axial compression. Intact bones were monotonically loaded in either torsion (n = 8) or axial compression (8) to failure. Mechanical variables were derived from load-deformation curves. Fracture configurations were described. Effects of sex, limb side, and bone dimensions on mechanical properties were assessed with a mixed-model ANOVA. Correlations between equivalent torsional and compressive properties were determined.

RESULTS Limb side and bone dimensions were not associated with any mechanical property. During compression tests, mean ultimate cumulative energy and postyield energy for female bones were significantly greater than those for male bones. All 8 bones developed a spiral diaphyseal fracture and a metaphyseal fissure or fracture during torsional tests. During compression tests, all bones developed a crushed metaphysis and a fissure or comminuted fracture of the diaphysis. Positive correlations were apparent between most yield and ultimate torsional and compressive properties.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The torsional and axial compressive properties of tibiotarsal bones described in this study can be used as a reference for investigations into fixation methods for tibiotarsal fractures in red-tailed hawks. Although the comminuted and spiral diaphyseal fractures induced in this study were consistent with those observed in clinical practice, the metaphyseal disruption observed was not and warrants further research.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

early 1990s. In both instances, the authors described the presence of purulent discharge at the tips of the toes of affected cattle and ascribed the term toe abscesses to the disease. The epidemiology, clinical findings, and postmortem findings detailed

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

with caution. ABBREVIATIONS GRF Ground reaction force HL Hoof landing phase of stride HTO Hoof takeoff phase of stride MSt Mid-stance phase of stride MSw Mid-swing phase of stride a. Verheyen K. Epidemiology of fractures in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. California Horse Racing Board Postmortem Examination Program 2017–2018 annual report . Davis, Calif : California Horse Racing Board , 2019 . 3. Stover SM . The epidemiology of Thoroughbred racehorse injuries . Clin Tech Equine Pract 2003 ; 2 : 312

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

: 1293 – 1298 . 10.2460/ajvr.67.8.1293 22. Whitehair JG Vasseur PB Willits NH . Epidemiology of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs . J Am Vet Med Assoc 1993 ; 203 : 1016 – 1019 .

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

JG Vasseur PB Willits NH . Epidemiology of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs . J Am Vet Med Assoc 1993 ; 203 : 1016 – 1019 . 17. Bertozzi L Stagni R Fantozzi S , et al. Evaluation of a cruciate ligament model: sensitivity to

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

experimentally induced lameness . Vet Surg 2008 ; 37 : 241 – 246 . 14. Mikuls TR , Farrar JT , Bilker WB , et al. Gout epidemiology: results from the UK General Practice Research Database, 1990–1999 . Ann Rheum Dis 2005 ; 64 : 267 – 272

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research