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develop from such contacts. The diversity of bacterial species associated with aquatic organisms is vast and is largely attributable to the aquatic environment. Although most fish pathogens are gram-negative bacteria, both gram-positive and gram

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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leptospires into the environment. A mammalian species may serve as a maintenance host for > 1 serovar. Animals will generally have more severe clinical signs when infected with serovars to which they are not adapted. These animals are considered incidental

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

during nutrient deprivation and exposure to air, as occurs during in vitro cultivation or when an infected carcass is disrupted by scavengers or during necropsy. The spores have no measurable metabolic activity and can remain dormant in the environment

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

environment. Whereas soil is the natural habitat for B pseudomallei , B mallei is not resistant to inactivation in the environment, and it is not thought to persist outside equine hosts for long periods of time. 5,6 Limited environmental survival of the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

areas in which the flies are endemic. 5,6,13 The initial year of the eradication campaigns in Florida and Texas benefited by a winter season that was colder than usual, which reduced the sterile fly distribution area. 6 Because of their environments

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

environment of an experimental situation, it is presently almost impossible to recreate the arousal that drives a dog's biting behavior during a real-life attack 56 ; thus, any investigation of that nature has considerable inherent limitations. Dog size, head

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

appropriate precautions to avoid exposure to potentially infectious material. There is a need for additional studies to examine the viability of WNV in fecal material or other bodily secretions in the environment and the potential for zoonotic transmission

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

remained in a cool environment for longer than 2 months. However, exposure to sunlight kills the organism within a few hours, 36 and the organism is susceptible to many common disinfectants. 37 Epidemiology The epidemiology of brucellosis among

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

caves or mines. Year Virus isolate Location No. of reported human cases (case fatality rate [%]) Association of infected humans with other animals or cave or mine environments Reference No. 1967 MARV‐Popp/Ci67

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Epidemiological update on BARB BSE cases. SEAC 80/4 . London : Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee , 2004 . Available at: www.seac.gov.uk/papers/seac80_4.pdf . Nov 30, 2008 . 112. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs . The exposure

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association