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intervals during a 14-month period. Results of these studies illustrate that Salmonella spp are quite prevalent in dairy herds and that Salmonella organisms can be intermittently shed into the environment. Control of Salmonella infection in dairy

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

at least 12 pathogenic and 4 saprophytic species, with > 250 pathogenic serovars. The bacteria may survive in the environment for up to 6 months, especially in basic soils (pH, 7.2 to 8.0) and in a warm, moist environment. The bacteria rarely survive

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

incubated for 24 hours at 37°C in a humidified 5% carbon dioxide environment. After incubation, plates were centrifuged at 1,200 × g for 5 minutes. Plasma was harvested and stored at −80°C until assayed. IFN-γ ELISA —A commercial IFN-γ ELISA kit d was

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

in the guttural pouch and may act as a reservoir of the disease. 4 Because S equi is fragile in the environment, the development of carrier animals is fundamental to the survival of the bacteria between outbreaks. 5,6 Strangles is often

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

environment. 12–16 Stability of current vaccines differs, with some vaccines stable up to 12 months at 45°C 15 and others stable up to 3 months at 37°C 17 ; however, no manufacturer recommends that vaccine be stored at ambient temperature because of the risk

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

animals. Information regarding the survival of L intracellularis in the environment is lacking, mainly owing to the difficulty experienced when attempting to grow the bacteria directly from fecal matter. Fecal-oral transmission has been reported between

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

of disease in a herd because vaccination will introduce the live virus into the environment. It was recognized throughout the study that factors such as concomitant disease, age, nutritional status, and environmental conditions could influence the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-infected swine, coexisting within endemically infected herds, 12 a problem that is frequently exacerbated by introduction of PRRSV-naïve replacement gilts. 13 Techniques such as herd closure, 14,15 acclimation of gilts to their new environment, 16–18 and mass

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

immune response to M bovis vaccine antigens, especially when cattle are housed in environments such as feedlots, where natural exposure to M bovis can occur. Those culture results could provide additional information and aid in the interpretation of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research