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alteration of the genes responsible for phallic development or androgen pathways may lead to hypospadias. It has been suggested that an interaction between genetic factors and the environment may also be associated with hypospadias. Endocrine

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, postwhelping hysteria, and chronism. This postpartum behavior can be initiated by an unstable social environment, which suggests that anxiety is an underlying factor. A bitch may occasionally ingest a pup for reasons that are not obvious to owners, breeders, or

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

they are not stimulated by use of an estrous bitch. In those situations, the second (spermrich) fraction is typically missing. 1,2 Thus, when a semen sample is collected from a male with poor libido or in an inappropriate environment, incomplete

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

contamination of their new environment. In addition, to prevent additional exposure, dogs should not be moved within the kennel. The kennel can be cleaned with quaternary ammonium compounds or iodophors, and personnel should take care to ensure removal of all

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

previous day was malodorous, it may have contained anaerobic bacteria. Therefore, hydrogen peroxide was included in the lavage to oxygenate, albeit temporarily, the intrauterine environment. An ointment containing nystatin, neomycin sulfate, thiostrepton

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

uterine lavage. 7 The goals of treatment for the bitch reported here were to evacuate all stagnant intrauterine estrual fluid before the time of TCI so that inseminated spermatozoa were not exposed to a potentially spermicidal environment and also to

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

dynamic and can be influenced by the environment, temperament, age, nutrition, disease, and other factors. 1 , 3 , 4 Furthermore, infertility can be transient or permanent and can be associated with various prognoses. 3 , 4 An important reproductive

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

an environment in which bacteria can thrive during the diestrous period. 4 The prevalence of CEH in aged pigs has been reported to be as high as 75% (24/32), with the incidence of neoplastic lesions being as high as 60% (20/32). 5 The most common

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

environment for bacterial growth, which resulted in scrotal cellulitis and ascending infection. Appropriate intensive treatment during the period immediately after injury generally includes hydrotherapy and administration of anti-inflammatories and

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. 3 Reef VB Vaala WE Worth LT , et al . Ultrasonographic evaluation of the fetus and intrauterine environment in healthy mares during late gestation . Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1995 ; 36 : 533 – 541 . 4 Troedsson MHT Zent

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association