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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

< 3 days. 1 This organism is ubiquitous in the environment, where it is found in soil, dust, rivers, lakes, tap water, and decaying vegetation with presumably worldwide distribution. 2,3 Atypical mycobacterial infections in cats most commonly appear

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

&E stain; bar = 100 μm. C—The bacterial colonies are composed of large, gram-positive bacilli. Gram stain; bar = 50 μm. Clostridium spp are gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacteria that are ubiquitous in the environment and gastrointestinal

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

within the family of Anisakidae, and although morphological descriptions of many of those species have been reported, little is known of the life cycle of the organisms. 7 For most species of anisakids, the eggs are passed into the environment from the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

aforementioned tissues or fluids and oral transmission when there is heavy contamination of the environment. 3,7 Coxiella burnetii infection in ruminants may be subclinical; however, clinical signs can include abortion (typically during the end of the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

common during winter months because mosquitoes overwinter in poultry houses. 2 , 4 The virus may persist in the environment for months to even years and is resistant to desiccation and most disinfectants, although it is sensitive to heat. 1 , 3 In

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

ubiquitous in the farm environment and the ruminant gastrointestinal tract, frequently being shed in feces and transmitted by fecal-oral exposure. 3 Ingestion of infected milk or silage are other documented transmission routes. While disease is not always

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

coccidiosis in chickens. 2 Clinical signs are mainly the result of destruction of intestinal epithelium during replication of the organisms. The lifecycle of Eimeria organisms begins when sporulated oocysts in the environment or feces of infected chickens

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

occurs following ingestion of sporulated oocysts present in the environment. The oocysts are crushed within the ventriculus, thereby releasing sporocysts that are further activated to become sporozoites within the duodenum. Sporozoites invade in the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. 2 Listeria monocytogenes is a non–spore-forming gram-positive bacterium that is ubiquitous in the environment, has a worldwide distribution, and can survive and multiply in a wide range of environmental temperatures and conditions. The

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association