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SUMMARY

A method was developed to evaluate frequent milking as a means of controlling intramammary infection. An artificial intramammary environment was used to determine growth responses of Escherichia coli (P4) to natural changes in the mammary gland resulting from bacterial invasion. Physical conditions manipulated in this model were growth medium, temperature, and oxygen tension. Mathematical modeling was then incorporated to generate predictions concerning growth dynamics of the organism when milking frequency was changed. To test accuracy of the model, initial predictions were derived from bacterial growth data in which E coli was incubated in tryptose soy broth for 12 hours at 37 C and Po2 equal to 23.3 mm of Hg. These predictions matched closely with experimental data in which 12-, 4-, and 2-hour milking intervals were simulated in the artificial intramammary environment. The mathematical model was then used to characterize growth rate data from in vitro experiments in ultra-high temperature- treated milk and in vivo experimental infection data generated with E coli (P4). Predictions generated from this model suggested that increasing milking frequency to 4 or 6 times daily controls growth of E coli for a prolonged period and that 12 times daily milking may lead to elimination of the bacterium.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The survival of pseudorabies virus in an aerosol was studied under different environmental conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Pseudorabies virus decayed logarithmically with mean half-lives of 17.4 (85% relative humidity, 22 C), 18.8 (25% relative humidity, 22 C), 27.3 (85% relative humidity, 4 C), 36.1 (55% relative humidity, 22 C), and 43.6 (55% relative humidity, 4 C) minutes. Virus survival was significantly improved in environments at 55% relative humidity, compared with those at 85% relative humidity (P = 0.017). Rates of survival were improved in environment at 4 C in comparison with those at 22 C. Results suggest that, under the best conditions of this study, the infectivity of pseudorabies virus in an aerosol decreases by 50% in < 1 hour.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Swab specimens for fungal isolation were collected from the healthy conjunctival sacs of 3 species of captive camelids (Lama glama, L guanicoe, L pacos) and llamaguanaco hybrids. Fungi were collected from over half the animals in winter (53%) and summer (56%). Fungal species of 10 genera were isolated. In both seasons, Aspergillus was the most commonly isolated genus; at least 9 species of Aspergillus were found. The fungal organisms isolated were similar to those found in healthy eyes of other domestic animals and may represent a random seeding from the environment where they are ubiquitous.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objectives

To evaluate in vitro susceptibility to topical antifungal medications, as measured by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50%), of fungal isolates from horses with ulcerative keratomycosis in Florida; to compare results with those of other studies to identify differences in susceptibility patterns among fungi isolated from horses in different geographic regions; and to note indications of fungal resistance to drugs tested in other studies.

Sample Population

Corneal fungal cultures from client-owned horses from Florida with ulcerative keratomycosis (n = 22).

Procedure

Fungal cultures were plated on Emmons modified Sabouraud dextrose agar and mycobiotic agar, examined weekly for growth, and kept for a total of 30 days. In vitro MIC and IC50% of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, and natamycin were measured for each fungal isolate.

Results

Aspergillus (n = 9; 41%), Fusarium (7; 32%), Penicillium (2; 9%), Cylindrocarpon (1; 4%), Scytalidium (1; 4%), and Torulopsis (1; 4%) spp and an unidentified yeast (1; 4%) were isolated. Fungi were most susceptible to antifungal drugs in the following order: natamycin and miconazole equally, itraconazole, and ketoconazole, although no significant difference was found among drugs. Fungi were significantly less susceptible to fluconazole (P < 0.0001) than to the other 4 drugs.

Conclusions

Initial antifungal therapy with topically applied natamycin, miconazole, itraconazole, or ketoconazole is recommended for ulcerative keratomycosis in horses in the subtropical environment of Florida.

Clinical Relevance

Specific antifungal treatment of horses with ulcerative keratomycosis should be based on history, results of ophthalmic examination, cytologic findings, isolation of the pathogenic fungus, and known prevalence of unique ocular fungi in specific geographic areas. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing may be most beneficial in aiding documentation of pharmacologic susceptibility patterns of fungi in specific geographic regions. (Am J Vet Res 1998; 59:138–142)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To characterize Listeria monocytogenes from tissues of channel catfish for their ability to cause hemolysis and grow intracellularly in mouse macrophages.

Samples

15 isolates from processed fillets and 15 isolates from the brain, spleen, and kidneys.

Procedure

Serotype and hemolytic activity of L monocytogenes isolates were evaluated, using plate agglutination and CAMP tests, respectively. Invasiveness of L monocytogenes was determined by inoculating each strain or isolate on J774A.1 macrophage cells. Infected cells were incubated for 0 or 3 hours and lysed; then 100 μΙ of the lysate was plated onto a brain heart infusion agar plate. Colony counts for each strain or isolate were analyzed statistically.

Results

Of 30 isolates, 19 were serotype 1 and 11 were serotype 4. Mouse J774A.1 macrophages were inoculated with catfish isolates, a wild-type (EGD) or a nonhemolytic strain of L monocytogenes. Seventy-three percent (11/15) of isolates originating from catfish organs and 100% (15/15) of isolates originating from fillets were not significantly different from the wild-type EGD strain. The nonhemolytic L monocytogenes strain used as a negative control failed to replicate. Intracellular growth of all L monocytogenes isolates decreased after an additional 3-hour incubation period with medium containing 50 μg/ml of gentamicin.

Conclusions

Similar to the wild-type EGD strain, most channel catfish L monocytogenes isolates were hemolytic, serotype 1 or 4, and were invasive for mouse J774A.1 macrophages.

Clinical Relevance

L monocytogenes growth in mouse macrophages may serve as an in vitro model for determining virulence of isolates from food products or environments. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1125-1128)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Nonindustrial systems that deliver steam for cleaning purposes have only recently become commercially available. These systems have been marketed as allergen-free, nontoxic means for cleaning and disinfecting in home environments. The portability of these

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Chickens evolved to lay eggs in nests, with the incubation process occurring in the presence of the previous generation. Hens are responsible for supplying heat, controlling the moisture environment, and rotating eggs. As a result, fertile eggs

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

similar manner (eg, similar veterinary care, housing, environment, and feed) and differed only with respect to antimicrobial exposure. A third-year veterinary student performed the data collection, identifying freshly eviscerated carcasses as having

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, positive interactions are shown in blue, and neutral interactions are shown in gray. Discussion The oral cavity mycobiome forms an important part of the microbial environment, and fungi are increasingly being recognized as the causative agent

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

epidemiological analyses (ie, strain typing by multilocus analysis of VNTRs), was first reported in 2003. 7 Brucella vaccines are produced by inoculating non-susceptible animals in an unfavorable environment, where gene mutation of the vaccines can easily occur

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research