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environment commonly have periods of sinus arrhythmia and sinus arrhythmia during anesthesia has been reported. 3 Pathological causes for high vagal tone in dogs and cats include diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system, and CNS. 4,5 The

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

repolarization in a myocardial ischemic environment. Dispersion of conduction and refractoriness favor development of reentrant ventricular arrhythmias. 4 The reentry mechanism is strongly associated with the development of cardiac arrhythmias. 5,6 It has

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

extremely warm environment) 7 and are instructed regarding anxiety management. Owners of affected dogs should be similarly advised of potential triggers of syncopal episodes. Drug treatments for humans and other animals with vasovagal syncope may include

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

reentry, and the node's ability to conduct in both antegrade (ie, AV) and retrograde (ie, ventriculoatrial) directions sets up a suitable environment for the development of ventricular reciprocal depolarizations. Classically, 2 parallel intranodal pathways

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

induced either pharmacologically (administration of opioids or pentobarbital) or after syncopal episodes. 7 , 8 Direct vagal nerve stimulation, acetylcholine infusion, and α-chloralose anesthesia have been reported to create a favorable environment for

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association