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congregation of inflammatory cells capable of releasing cytokines that contribute to inflammation and catabolism. 4 The in vitro effects of commonly used corticosteroids on equine articular tissues in inflammatory environments have been investigated. 5

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

complex conditions in vivo. One notable difference in the experimental system used in this study, compared with the previous study, 9 is that it incorporated not only cartilage but also synovium in an attempt to resemble the entire joint environment as

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

examinations. 25 Anti-inflammatory effects of a similar anesthetic, lidocaine hydrochloride, have been documented after IV administration in humans 26 and horses 27,28 but, to our knowledge, have not been documented in an articular environment. Additionally

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

be a result of the transition of the tissue from a mechanically unstable in vivo environment to the culture environment where swelling was unrestricted. The production of NO during culture, although steady, was also somewhat low in all groups. In a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

beneficial effects on proteoglycan metabolism by use of lower doses of methylprednisolone acetonide and a medium–molecular-weight hyaluronic acid on chondrocyte pellets in an inflammatory environment (ie, IL-1–treated). 2 The purpose of the study reported

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

degradation. To further model the native joint environment, a coculture system in which cartilage explants are grown in the presence of synoviocytes was used. Materials and Methods Cartilage and synoviocyte coculture —Cartilage and synovium were

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

cartilage explants from horses in the presence of interleukin-1. 13 Effects of corticosteroids on articular chondrocytes may be impacted by the local environment. Results of a study 14 on ponies with experimentally induced acute synovitis revealed that an

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

could be related to joint morphology and the load environment of the midcarpal joint. For example, at high speeds, there can be hyperextension of the carpal joint attributable to muscle fatigue. 35–39 This results in transmission of the dynamic axial

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

—Chondrocyte pellets (5 × 10 5 cells) were formed via centrifugation (300 × g for 5 minutes) in 15-mL polypropylene centrifuge tubes and then incubated by use of standard cell culture conditions (37°C in an environment with 95% relative humidity and 5

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

collagen. 52,53 It is interesting to note that, regardless of the serum-free environment, no differences in cell numbers were found between the control and growth factor treatment groups in the present study. Standardization of the total number of cells

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research