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SUMMARY

Pleural effusion was induced in 12 dogs by ligation of the cranial vena cava. Pleurodesis was attempted by injecting a solution of tetracycline hydrochloride into the pleural space of 8 dogs (4 dogs, 25 mg/kg of body weight; 4 dogs, 50 mg/kg) via bilateral thoracostomy tubes. In both groups, tetracycline was diluted in 40 ml of normal saline solution and 10 ml of 1% lidocaine before injection. Half of the solution (25 ml) was instilled in each hemithorax. Four control dogs were treated in the same manner with a solution of normal saline and lidocaine. Daily pleural fluid production was measured after the attempted pleurodesis. Thirty days after administration of the solution, each dog was euthanatized and necropsied. Surface area of pleural adhesions was measured. Tissues from regions of pleural adhesions and areas of parietal and visceral pleura not involved in adhesions were analyzed histologically.

Formation of pleural fluid stopped in all but 1 control dog within 48 hours after injection of solution. This dog effused throughout the study. The resolution of effusion was not significantly (P < 0.05) different between the tetracycline-treated dogs and the control group. Although diffuse pleural adhesions were not induced in any of tbe dogs, significantly (P < 0.0027) more surface area of lung was adhered in dogs treated with the higher dose of tetracycline.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The antebrachiocarpal and tarsocrural joints of 10 adult horses were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups. Groups were formulated and were treated as follows: group 1, control (arthrocentesis only); group 2, buffered lactated Ringer solution; group 3, 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso; w/v) in lactated Ringer solution; and group 4, 30% dmso (w/v) in lactated Ringer solution. Joints were lavaged once with the respective solution. Prior to lavage and on days 1, 4, and 8 after lavage, all horses were evaluated for lameness and joint effusion; synovial fluid total and differential wbc counts, synovial fluid total protein concentration, and mucin clot quality were determined. Horses were euthanatized on day 8, and joints were evaluated grossly, histologically, and histochemically.

Significant difference was not observed in effect of lactated Ringer solution, 10% dmso, and 30% dmso on any measured variable. At 24 hours after treatment, significant (P < 0.05) difference in synovial fluid wbc numbers and total protein concentration was detected between control and treated joints. Eighty percent of lavaged joints had effusion 24 hours after treatment, compared with 30% of control joints.

Gross, histopathologic, or histochemical differences were not detected between treated and control joints. Results of the study indicate that buffered lactated Ringer, 10% dmso, and 30% dmso solutions induce similar inflammatory changes in articular structures and significantly greater inflammatory reaction than does arthrocentesis alone.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The effects of intra-articular administration of dimethylsulfoxide (dmso) on chemically induced synovitis in the middle carpal joint of 6 weanling horses were evaluated. Following aseptic collection of synovial fluid, the middle carpal joint of each forelimb was injected with 50 mg of Namonoiodoacetate to induce synovitis. Eight days after injection, synovial fluid was obtained and the right middle carpal joints were injected with 2 ml of 40% dmso in lactated Ringer solution. The corresponding joints of the left limb (control) were injected with 2 ml of lactated Ringer solution. Sampling and treatments were repeated on postinjection days 11 and 14, for a total of 3 treatments. Horses were visually evaluated daily for lameness and joint effusion. Synovial fluid was evaluated for color and clarity, differential and total WBC count, total protein content, and hyaluronic acid concentration. The Kaegi gait analysis system provided an objective assessment of lameness prior to inducing synovitis, again on day 7, and on day 17. At necropsy (day 17), synovial fluid, synovial membrane, and articular cartilage specimens were collected.

Joint effusion was evident 12 hours after injection of Namonoiodoacetate in all joints. Mild lameness was evident at 24 hours; however, the lameness resolved by 72 hours. Objective assessment of lameness did not reveal significant differences between treatment or control limbs. Hyaluronic acid concentrations increased significantly (P = 0.023) above baseline values in most joints over the study period. Synovial fluid wbc counts increased significantly (P = 0.002) following Na-monoiodoacetate injection and remained significantly (P = 0.002) above baseline values throughout the study. There was a significantly greater decrease (P = 0.04) in total wbc counts between the pretreatment and final sampling period in the dmso-treated joints, compared with the controls. Histologic evaluation of synovial membrane samples revealed a significantly less inflammatory response in 4 of 6 dmso-treated joints, compared with that in the controls. Histochemical staining of articular cartilage did not reveal any observable difference between treated or control specimens.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Four autogenous osteochondral fragments removed from the lateral trochlear ridge of the talus were arthroscopically placed as loose bodies in a randomly selected middle carpal joint in each of 10 horses. The contralateral middle carpal joint, subjected to a sham procedure, served as control. Postoperative treatment was consistent with that for clinical arthroscopic patients. Lameness evaluation, radiographic examination, carpal circumference measurement, and synovial fluid analysis were performed before and at scheduled intervals after surgery. After a 2-month confinement, horses were subjected to an increasing level of exercise. Horses were euthanatized at intervals through 6 months. Gross and microscopic evaluations were performed on remaining fragments, articular cartilage, and synovial membrane of each middle carpal joint.

Increased joint circumference, effusion, lameness, and degenerative joint disease distinguished implanted from control joints over the 6-month period. Implanted joints were characterized by grooved, excoriated cartilage surfaces, and synovium that was thick, erythematous, and irregular. At 4 weeks, implants were found to have adhered to synovium at their subchondral bone surface. The bone within fragments was undergoing necrosis, while cartilage was preserved. At 8 weeks, fragments were radiographically inapparent, grossly evident as pale plaques on the synovial surface, and composed of dense fibrous connective tissue.

Synovial membrane specimens from implanted joints had inflammatory change characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration 2 months after implantation. Physical damage was apparent within articular cartilage of implanted joints at 2 months, and was significant (P < 0.05) at 6 months after surgery. Chondrocyte degenerative change was significant (P < 0.05) at 6 months after surgery. Focal reduction in safranin-O uptake was observed in cartilage layers adjacent to physical defects.

Osteochondral loose bodies of the size implanted in the middle carpal joint of horses in this study were resorbed by the synovium within 2 months. Synovitis and significant articular cartilage damage were associated with the implanted fragments. Regardless of origin, free osteochondral fragments within the middle carpal joint should be removed, and methods to prevent residual postoperative debris should be implemented to reduce potential for articular pathologic change.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

amount of fluid that is produced in the wound above that which would develop following surgery or trauma alone in an undrained wound. 5 In fact, experimental systems generating suctions between 50 and 200 mm Hg are used to produce effusion fluid for

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

; however, this did not occur. The dogs used in the present study were clinically normal and were used primarily for undergraduate surgical exercises. There was no evidence of pleural effusion or thoracic lymphangiectasia in any dogs. However, dogs with

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Thoracostomy tube placement is indicated for the management of severe pleural effusion that necessitates repeated pleural drainage and for the treatment of pneumothorax if air continues to accumulate despite evacuation of the thoracic cavity via

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Can Vet J 2011 ; 52 : 1123 – 1128 . 4. Kovak JR Ludwig LL Bergman PJ , et al. Use of thoracoscopy to determine the etiology of pleural effusion in dogs and cats: 18 cases (1998–2001). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002 ; 221 : 990 – 994

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Chylous effusion within the thoracic cavity occurs secondarily in cats as the result of many causes, including trauma, neoplasia, cardiac disease, and lung lobe torsion. 1 Most often, a definitive cause is not identified, and chylothorax is

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

secondary to pain or an effusion. Intrinsic factors involving collagen contraction have been suggested as potential mechanisms for the change in PLL. 24,26 Investigators of a recent veterinary study 27 measured PLL of dogs 4 weeks after stifle joint

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research