Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 11 items for :

  • "colostrum" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

Abstract

Objective

To examine systemic immunity in kittens, including transfer of maternal immunoglobulins from the queen to kittens, and subsequent decay of passively obtained immunoglobulins.

Animals

6 healthy queens and their 46 kittens.

Procedure

Immunoglobulin concentrations were measured in serum, colostrum, and milk of queens and in their kittens' sera. Decay rate constants and half-lives of maternally derived immunoglobulins were determined. To determine intestinal absorption, foreign IgG was given to kittens at 6- to 8-hour intervals after birth, and bovine IgM was given to kittens at birth.

Results

Immunoglobulin concentrations of milk and colostrum did not differ significantly after removal of milk fat. Mean IgG concentration was higher in colostrum/milk, whereas mean IgA and IgM concentrations were lower than those in the queens' serum. No IgG or IgA was detected in any of the precolostral serum samples obtained from kittens. Small amounts of IgM were present in the sera from 5 kittens at birth. Transferred IgG and IgA decreased rapidly with half-lives of 4.4 ± 3.57 and 1.93 ± 1.94 days, respectively. Serum IgM concentration increased irregularly during the first week of life, followed by a steady increase. Foreign IgG given up to 12 hours after birth was detected in kittens' serum, whereas IgG given at or after 16 hours was not found in any kitten's serum.

Conclusions

Milk and colostral immunoglobulin concentrations did not differ significantly. The half-lives of maternally derived IgG and IgA in kittens were shorter than those reported in dogs. IgG given at or after 16 hours of life was not absorbed by neonatal kittens.

Clinical Relevance

Queen's milk obtained anytime during lactation may be used as a replacement for colostrum as a source of antibodies for neonatal kittens. Kittens at risk for neonatal isoerythrolysis must only be removed from the queens during the first day of life. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1653–1658)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Icterus condemnations compose a substantial proportion (41%) of total condemnations of bob veal, the class of veal composed of calves < 3 weeks old and weighing up to 68 kg. At postmortem examination, bob veal condemned because of icterus have generalized yellow discoloration of tissues, which is commonly associated with large, yellow liver (fatty liver), and a paucity of other gross pathologic changes. To establish that the generalized yellow discoloration was attributable to high tissue bilirubin concentrations and to examine the underlying mechanism(s) that might be responsible, blood samples and tissue specimens were obtained from clinically normal and icteric bob veal calves at slaughter. For comparison, blood samples were collected from clinically normal, 1- to 5-day-old Holstein calves being raised on local dairy farms. Hematologic and serum biochemical analyses were obtained for the 3 groups of calves (normal local, normal slaughter, and icteric slaughter), and tissues of slaughter calves were examined for histologic evidence of inflammatory or degenerative changes. Mean ± sd total bilirubin concentration and creatine kinase (ck) activity in icteric bob veal (3.3 ± 0.8 mg/dl; 869 ± 788 U/L), normal bob veal (1.4 ± 0.7 mg/dl; 486 ± 890 U/L), and normal local calves (0.5 ± 0.2 mg/dl; 156 ± 158 U/L) were significantly different. When data for both normal and icteric bob veal calf groups were combined for analysis, total bilirubin concentration regressed significantly on hepatic lipid scores (P = 0.00003) and ck activity (P = 0.00049). Colostrum consumption was determined by measuring serum total protein concentration and serum γ-glutamyltransferase activity. Bob veal calves that had not consumed colostrum had significantly higher total bilirubin (P = 0.00005) and ck (P = 0.0008) values. It was concluded that normal and icteric bob veal calves have significant increase in total bilirubin concentration, and icterus of bob veal calves is secondary to unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Lack of colostrum consumption was strongly correlated with icterus in bob veal calves.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine effects of selenium (Se) and vitamin E (VE) administration in late pregnancy on Se status, plasma immunoglobulin concentrations, and colostrum and milk production of dairy cows, and on Se status, passive immunity, and growth of their offspring.

Animals

25 Holstein cows and their offspring.

Procedure

3 and 1.5 weeks before calving, sodium selenite (5 mg/100 kg of body weight) and d, l-α-tocopheryl acetate (25 IU/100 kg) were administered to 13 cows. The other 12 cows were not treated. Se status was assessed by measurement of glutathione peroxidase activity of erythrocytes (GSH-Px-E).

Results

The 13 treated cows had higher (P < 0.01) GSH-Px-E values at calving and during the first 12 weeks of lactation. Changes in plasma immunoglobulin concentrations before or after calving did not differ between the 2 groups of cows. During the first 36 hours after calving (4 milkings), treated cows produced 22% more colostrum than did their nontreated counterparts (P < 0.005). Percentages of colostral immunoglobulins did not differ between the 2 groups. During the first 12 weeks of lactation, treated cows produced 10% more milk than did nontreated cows (P < 0.005). GSH-Px-E values at birth and 28 days of life were significantly higher in calves from treated cows. Plasma immunoglobulin concentrations and body weight during the first 56 days after birth did not differ between calves born to treated or non-treated cows.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Cows given Se and VE in late pregnancy produce large quantities of colostrum and milk. Colostrum produced from cows given Se and VE is suitable to feed newborn calves and to be stored for later use. Improvement of Se status in calves born to cows given Se and VE in late pregnancy is not beneficial to passive immunity and growth. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1776–1780)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Ten healthy first- and second-lactation Holstein cows were observed from 1 week before to 1 week after calving and at postpartum day 30 to determine polymorphonuclear neutrophil (pmn) functional variation and immunoglobulin binding profiles. Blood and mammary pmn were obtained 3 times weekly and within 24 hours of calving. Functional traits measured included phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus and in vitro chemotaxis through micropore filters in a Boyden chamber. Additionally, pmn were evaluated for endogenous binding of IgG1, IgG2, IgA, and IgM before and after in vitro chemotaxis. Exogenous binding of the same isotypes was determined after incubation in pooled colostrum, purified immunoglobulin, and pooled sera. Phagocytosis results indicated a significant and transient increase in percentage of milk pmn with associated, rather than phagocytosed, bacteria for 1 week after calving. Blood pmn phagocytosis was not significantly different during this period. Though total chemotaxis was essentially unchanged, the percentage of pmn that were unable to complete migration increased substantially on the day of calving, an effect that disappeared by postpartum day 4. A significant (P < 0.01) positive correlation (r = 0.29) between percentage of pmn migrating completely through the micropore filter and percentage of blood pmn with associated bacteria was observed. Changes were not observed in endogenous immunoglobulin binding, with the exception of a peak in relative fluorescence intensity for IgG1 on the day of calving; this disappeared within 2 days after calving. Correlations between relative intensities of IgG2 and IgM, and percentage of mammary neutrophils phagocytosing were 0.37 and 0.70. Exogenous binding of antibody to blood neutrophils before chemotaxis was generally accomplished most effectively by pooled colostrum, whereas use of pooled sera markedly reduced binding and percentage and intensity of IgM in all cases. Binding of all isotypes was slightly higher before than after calving. Incubation of blood neutrophils in isotypes G1, G2, A, and M after chemotaxis yielded lower immunoglobulin binding among all isotypes, particularly IgM. Fluctuations in neutrophil function were observed immediately around parturition, and these changes correlated strongly with endogenous immunoglobulin-binding profiles.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Plasma and milk concentrations of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) at various stages of pregnancy and lactation were determined in thirtynine 3- to 16-year-old Brown Swiss and Red Holstein × Simmental dairy cows originating from 4 herds. Eighteen of the cows were separated into 2 groups: low-parity (lp, n = 8) cows if they were in their first or second pregnancy and high-parity (hp, n = 10) cows if they were in their third or greater pregnancy. Blood samples were collected from each cow on 1 occasion, 15 to 5 days before calving, and blood and milk samples were collected daily during 6 days after calving. Serum total and ionized calcium (Catot and Ca2+, respectively) and milk Catot concentrations were also quantified.

A transient postpartum decrease of serum Catot and Ca2+ concentrations was observed, whereas milk Catot concentration was constant. Plasma concentration of PTHrP was detected in 11 of 21 cows by use of an immunoradiometric assay (range, 0.45 to 1.82 pmol/L). Daily mean (± sd) colostrum and milk PTHrP concentrations ranged from 3.25 (± 3.23) to 4.69 (± 1.36) nmol/L in lp cows and 2.74 (± 0.5) to 5.95 (± 0.33) nmol/L in hp cows. In all cows of the hp group and most cows of the lp group, milk PTHrP concentration was highest in the day-1 sample. Milk PTHrP concentration correlated positively with milk Catot concentration in hp cows (r = 0.5959, P < 0.0001). In contrast, there was a negative relation between milk PTHrP and milk Catot concentrations in lp cows (r = −0.3285, P < 0.02). Milk PTHrP concentration was not correlated with serum Ca2+ concentration at postpartum days 5 and 6, when serum Catot and Ca2+ concentrations had returned to prepartum values. Because correlation did not exist between the lowest serum Ca2+ values and milk PTHrP concentration of the corresponding day, milk PTHrP concentration most likely is not a major determinant of Ca transport into milk and the PTHrP released into the blood stream is most likely not a major determinant of the endocrine regulation of serum Catot and Ca2+.

Thus, although it is involved, PTHrP is not a major factor in the integrative endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine regulation of Ca homeostasis in lactating cows. It is hypothesized that Ca may be actively transported from blood into milk with a process modulated by PTHrP. These data suggest that PTHrP produced by the mammary gland is most likely not involved in the pathogenesis of parturient paresis (milk fever) in dairy cows.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

and Methods Animals and instrumentation —Five healthy colostrum-fed male Holstein-Friesian calves were obtained from the university dairy farm within the first week of life. Body weights on arrival ranged from 33 to 36 kg. An abomasal cannula a was

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, and differential counts of cell populations using electron microscopy of dry cow secretions, colostrum and milk from normal cows . J Dairy Res 1980 ; 47 : 39 – 50 . 10.1017/S0022029900020860 2. Leitner G Shoshani E Krifucks O , et al

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

predispose lambs to development of lung lesions. Alternatively, the stress of weaning or waning of colostral antibodies could increase the susceptibility of lambs to agents that cause lung lesions. Prevalence of lung lesions increased dramatically by 50 days

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. 5 In neonatal foals, endotoxemia is most commonly associated with failure of passive transfer of colostral components and subsequent development of septicemia. 11 As determined in several clinical studies 5,11-14 in which the limulus amoebocyte

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

). Materials and Methods Animals —Eight healthy colostrum-fed male Holstein-Friesian calves were obtained from a local source at 2 to 4 days of age. Body weight of these calves ranged from 39 to 51 kg on arrival. Calves were individually housed unrestrained

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research