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The importance of the ingestion and absorption of colostral immunoglobulins on morbidity, fatalities, growth, and future productivity of dairy calves has been described. 1–6 Calves with inadequate passive transfer of colostral immunoglobulins

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

priming by the cow must occur via ingestion of colostrum. Failure to transfer colostral components from the cow to the calf within a few hours of birth has important negative consequences on the health and development of the calf. 1 Furthermore

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

of colostrum is crucial for newborn pigs to acquire passive immunity from sows. Porcine colostrum contains soluble components (eg, immunoglobulins and cytokines) as well as mononuclear cells such as B cells (CD21+), monocytes or macrophages (CD14

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

increases in specific IgG concentrations against these pathogens, which are then passively transferred to calves via colostrum. The purpose of the controlled trial reported here was to determine whether vaccinating cows during late gestation against M

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Maternal colostrum or maternal colostrum plus colostral supplement, composed of a blend of lyophilized colostrum and dried whey, was fed to 32 Holstein calves as soon as possible after birth (mean ± sem = 2.0 ± 0.2 hours) and, again, 12 hours later. Mean immunoglobulin concentration in colostrum was 59.2 mg/ml; mean immunoglobulin fraction in supplement was 11.4%. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were measured at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours, and at 28 and 56 days. Hour/treatment interactions were significant for total immunoglobulin, IgG1, and IgM concentrations. Immunoglobulin concentrations were highest at 12 hours (total immunoglobulin, IgG1, IgM) or 24 hours (IgG2) in calves fed colostrum plus supplement, whereas all immunoglobulin concentrations were highest at 24 hours in calves fed maternal colostrum only. Peak mean immunoglobulin concentrations did not differ between treatments. Supplementation of colostrum did not increase peak mean serum immunoglobulin concentration, but did alter the serum concentration-time profile from 12 to 72 hours after birth.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

We examined the effect of infusion of lipopolysaccharide (lps) on serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnfα) concentration and clinical attitude in 2- to 3-day-old colostrum-fed (cf) and colostrum-deprived (cd) foals. Eleven cf and 8 cd neonatal foals were given a bolus IV infusion of Escherichia coli O55:B5 lipopolysaccharide (0.5 µg kg of body weight) in sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Four cf and 2 cd foals were given saline solution alone. Serum IgG concentration and serum anti-lps IgG(T) antibody titer were determined for each foal prior to infusion. A depression index was used to score clinical abnormalities. Serum tnfα concentration was estimated by use of an in vitro cytotoxicity bioassay that used WEHI 164 clone 13 cells as targets. The cytotoxic serum factor was identified as tnfα by immunoprecipitation with caprine antisera raised against the 15 NH2- terminal amino acids of human tnfα. Tumor necrosis factor alpha was not detected in any preiniusion serum samples nor in any samples from foals given saline solution alone. Serum tnfα concentration increased in all lps-infused foals and peaked between 60 and 90 minutes after infusion. Serum tnfα concentrations, expressed as mean percentage of peak serum tnfα concentration, persisted longer in cd foals given lps than in cf foals given lps. All lps-infused foals displayed clinical signs of endotoxemia, but mean depression index scores of the cf and cd foals given lps were not significantly different at any time. Serum tnfα concentrations were correlated with depression index scores in both lps-infused groups. Mean rectal temperature increased by 1 hour and remained high for 4 hours after infusion in cf foals given lps . Mean rectal temperature in cd foals given lps was significantly less than that for cf foals given lps 1 and 2 hours after infusion and was higher than mean rectal temperature prior to infusion 3 and 4 hours after infusion. Neither preinfusion total serum IgG concentration nor serum anti-lps IgG(T) antibody titer correlated with peak serum tnfα concentration in the 19 lps-infused foals.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Failure to obtain passive transfer of immunity via colostrum can be detrimental to the health and survival of a young pup. It has been stated that pups that do not receive colostrum in the first 2 days after birth, be given adult dog serum as a source of protective immunoglobulins. Twenty-five Beagle pups were obtained by cesarean section from 6 Beagle bitches. The pups were allotted to 3 groups at birth. Group 1 was a control group and was allowed to suckle colostrum. Group-2 pups received 22 ml of pooled adult dog serum/kg of body weight (10 ml/lb) sc at birth. Group-3 pups were given 22 ml of pooled adult dog serum/kg by stomach tube at birth. Pups from groups 2 and 3 were separated from the bitch for 48 hours to prevent colostral antibody absorption and were fed a commercially available milk replacer by stomach tube. After 48 hours, all pups were returned to the bitch until they were weaned at 6 weeks of age. Blood samples were collected from all of the pups at birth and on days 1, 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. The concentration of IgA, IgG, and IgM in serum was determined by radial immunodiffusion and compared by use of a one-way analysis of variance. The control pups had significantly higher serum concentrations of IgA and IgG, than the pups in groups 2 and 3 on days 1 and 2 and 2 and 7, respectively. Group-2 pups had significantly higher serum IgM concentrations on day 1 than either group 1- or group-3 pups.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Six foals were deprived of colostrum for the first 36 hours after birth and, instead, received reconstituted powdered milk. Five control foals suckled their dams naturally. Blood samples were obtained from all the foals after birth and at approximately weekly intervals until at least 5.5 months of age. Sera were analyzed for hemolytic complement activity, complement component C3, and correlating IgG concentration. Hemolytic complement (P = 0.0145) and C3 (P = 0.0002) values were significantly higher in colostrum-deprived foals (cdf) than in naturally nursed foals at 2 to 5 days of age. In addition, significantly (P = 0.0149) higher IgG concentration was found in cdf than in naturally nursed foals between 3 and 5.5 months of age. It was concluded that the observed high complement activity in cdf within 2 to 5 days of age may provide an alternative in immune defense for IgG-deprived foals after failure of colostral transfer.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The effects of alkalinizing agents, administered prior to feeding colostrum, on blood-gas and acid-base values and on absorption of IgGl were determined in 40 newborn Holstein calves. Two treatments, sodium bicarbonate (3 mEq/kg of body weight, IV) and doxapram HCl (2 mg/kg, IV), were evaluated, using a randomized complete-block experimental design. These treatments resulted in significant (P< 0.01) alteration of blood-gas and acid-base values, generally in the direction of normal values for adult cattle. Significant least squares mean effects were detected for sodium bicarbonate treatment on blood pH ( + 0.04 units, P < 0.01), Pco2( + 4.1 mm of Hg, P <0.01), and HCO3 concentration ( + 4.4 mEq/L, P < 0.01). Significant least squares mean effects were detected for doxapram HC1 treatment on blood pH ( + 0.06 pH units, P <0.01) and Pco2(–5.2 mm of Hg, P <0.01). Absorption of colostral IgGl was not affected by the treatments given or by the altered blood-gas and/or acid-base status.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Immunoglobulin values were determined in fetal and kitten sera. In the fetal and precolostral kitten sera, only IgG was detected, except in 1 case in which IgM was detected. The IgG, IgA, and IgM were transferred to the kittens through colostrum ingestion with some selectivity. Concentration of the transferred IgG, IgA, and IgM decreased significantly with half-lives of 4.15 ± 1.29 days, 2.03 ± 0.33 days, and 2.2 ± 1.2 days, respectively. As a result of this decrease and increase of de novo immunoglobulin synthesis, IgG, IgA, and IgM were at their lowest values when kittens were 20 to 25 days, 14 to 20 days, and 8 to 10 days old, respectively. After their nadir was reached, IgG values increased gradually, IgA slowly, and IgM rapidly, as a result of de novo immunoglobulin synthesis. When the kittens were 90 days old, their immunoglobulin values were 80% (IgG), 7% (IgA), and 100% (IgM), compared with those of adult cats. These findings suggest that kittens that receive inadequate colostrum from their mothers will be particularly susceptible to infection after they are 5 weeks old.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research