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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the effect of peritoneal lavage on pharmacokinetics of gentamicin sulfate in healthy horses after experimental celiotomy.

Animals

13 clinically normal horses.

Procedure

Horses were randomly assigned to control or experimental groups. All horses received gentamicin (6.6 mg/kg of body weight, IV, q 24 h) before surgery, underwent experimental abdominal surgery, and had abdominal drains placed percutaneously. Horses of the experimental group received postoperative peritoneal lavage; horses of the control group did not receive peritoneal lavage. The day after surgery, 24 hours after the preoperative dose of gentamicin, a second dose of gentamicin was administered. Three and 15 hours after this second dose of gentamicin, horses of the experimental group received peritoneal lavage. Venous blood was obtained, for determination of concentration of gentamicin, immediately before and at specified intervals during the 24-hour period after the second dose of gentamicin.

Results

There were no differences in any of the pharmacokinetic values of gentamicin between horses of the control and experimental groups.

Conclusions

Peritoneal lavage had no effect on pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in healthy horses after abdominal surgery, in which localized nonseptic peritonitis was induced.

Clinical Relevance

Peritoneal lavage in horses with localized nonseptic peritonitis or for the prevention of intra-abdominal adhesions should not necessitate alteration of the dosage of gentamicin to maintain predictable serum concentrations. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1166–1170)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Introduction An ideal incisional closure device provides effective skin apposition, ease of application, and good cosmesis and has a low rate of complications. 1 – 4 This concept applies to closure of equine ventral midline celiotomies, in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, g Surgery —Forty-eight hours after xylene instillation, the ventral portion of the abdomen and vulva were clipped with a No. 40 blade and aseptically prepared. Ventral midline celiotomy was performed with the incision beginning at the umbilicus and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-certified veterinary surgeon who was experienced in avian surgery (RAB). The surgeon used 3.5× surgical loupes. f Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. For each bird, a left lateral celiotomy was performed as previously described. 1–4 In all

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Twelve ponies were used to evaluate the reliability of an abdominal adhesion model and the efficacy of intraperitoneal infusion of sodium carboxymethylcellulose in preventing abdominal adhesions. A celiotomy was performed on each of the 12 ponies and the serosa of the distal portion of the jejunum was abraded with a dry gauze sponge at 5 locations. In addition to the serosal damage, a single 2-0 chromic gut suture was placed through the seromuscular layer of the jejunum in the center of the abraded area. After closure of the celiotomy, a 1% solution of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (7 ml/kg of body weight) was infused into the peritoneal cavity of 6 ponies. The other ponies served as untreated controls. All ponies were euthanatized 14 days after surgery.

All ponies in the control group had abdominal adhesions at the time of necropsy. Four of the 6 ponies in the treatment group were free of adhesions. There was a significant (P < 0.0001) difference in the total number of adhesions between the 2 groups.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Three laparoscopic procedures were performed on each of 6 adult Jersey cows in the first trimester of gestation to describe normal laparoscopic anatomy of the bovine abdomen. Also, a technique for laparoscopy of the cranioventral portion of the abdomen was described. Right paralumbar fossa, left paralumbar fossa, and cranioventral midline laparoscopy were performed 72 hours apart on each cow. Physical examination findings, cbc, serum biochemical analysis, and peritoneal fluid analysis before and 72 hours after the first surgery were used to assess the effects of the procedures on the cows. Exploratory celiotomy was performed 2 weeks after the last laparoscopy. The cows were then reexamined 6 weeks after the last procedure. The t-test for paired data was used for statistical analysis; the level of significance was P < 0.05. Laparoscopy was performed without complication in all cows. Adverse effects of laparoscopy, individually or serially, were not observed. Significant differences were not found between cbc, serum biochemical, and peritoneal fluid variables taken before and 72 hours after surgery.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To examine effects of continuous rate infusion of lidocaine on transmural neutrophil infiltration in equine intestine subjected to manipulation only and remote to ischemic intestine.

ANIMALS 14 healthy horses.

PROCEDURES Ventral midline celiotomy was performed (time 0). Mild ischemia was induced in segments of jejunum and large colon. A 1-m segment of jejunum was manipulated by massaging the jejunal wall 10 times. Horses received lidocaine (n = 7) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (7) throughout anesthesia. Biopsy specimens were collected and used to assess tissue injury, neutrophil influx, cyclooxygenase expression, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression at 0, 1, and 4 hours after manipulation and ischemia. Transepithelial resistance (TER) and mannitol flux were measured by use of Ussing chambers.

RESULTS Lidocaine did not consistently decrease neutrophil infiltration in ischemic, manipulated, or control tissues at 4 hours. Lidocaine significantly reduced circular muscle and overall scores for cyclooxygenase-2 expression in manipulated tissues. Manipulated tissues had significantly less HIF-1α expression at 4 hours than did control tissues. Mucosa from manipulated and control segments obtained at 4 hours had lower TER and greater mannitol flux than did control tissues at 0 hours. Lidocaine did not significantly decrease calprotectin expression. Severity of neutrophil infiltration was similar in control, ischemic, and manipulated tissues at 4 hours.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Manipulated jejunum did not have a significantly greater increase in neutrophil infiltration, compared with 4-hour control (nonmanipulated) jejunum remote to sites of manipulation, ischemia, and reperfusion. Lidocaine did not consistently reduce neutrophil infiltration in jejunum.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Efficacy of a 1% solution of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (cmc) infused into the peritoneal cavity of ewes was evaluated for prevention of intraperitoneal adhesions resulting from surgery of the reproductive tract. Six ewes were assigned to each of 4 groups. Group-1 ewes were controls that underwent ventral midline celiotomy and exploration of the abdominal viscera. Group-2 ewes were treated similarly to group-1 ewes, except that a 1% solution of cmc (14 ml/kg of body weight) was infused into the peritoneal cavity. This group was studied to determine whether cmc would cause changes in the peritoneal cavity. Group-3 comprised ewes representing a uterine trauma model. Ewes underwent abdominal exploration, but in addition had a standard embryo collection technique performed on 1 uterine horn and hysterotomy performed on the opposite uterine horn. Group-4 ewes were treated like group-3 ewes, except that, similar to treatment of group-2 ewes, cmc was infused into the peritoneal cavity. All ewes were euthanatized and necropsied 12 to 14 days after surgery.

Abdominal adhesions were evaluated, and an adhesion severity score was assigned to each ewe on the basis of number and severity of the adhesions. Ewes of all groups had abdominal adhesions. Significantly (P < 0.05) lower adhesion score was observed in ewes given cmc (groups 2 and 4) than in the adhesion model (group 3). Significant difference was not observed in adhesion score when groups 1, 2, or 4 were compared. Though not statistically significant, fewer adhesions were observed in ewes of groups 2 and 4 than in group-1 ewes.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Effects of vena caval banding on portal venous and vena caval hemodynamics were examined in 6 control dogs and in 10 dogs that had undergone attenuation (banding) of the abdominal part of the caudal vena cava and had dimethylnitrosamine-induced multiple portosystemic shunts (pss). Additionally, indocyanine green (icg) extraction and clearance after infusion to steady state were used to calculate hepatic plasma flow in these dogs. Sixteen dogs were randomly assigned to 2 groups: control (n = 6) or diseased(n= 10). Diseased dogs were administered dimethylnitrosamine (2 mg/kg, po, twice weekly) until multiple pss developed, as assessed by results of clinical laboratory tests, ultrasonography, and hepatic scintigraphy. Shunts were confirmed visually at celiotomy and by contrast portography. Venous pressures (caudal vena caval, portal, and hepatic) were recorded before and after vena caval banding for up to 7 days in dogs from both groups. Peritoneal cavity pressures were recorded in all dogs after closure of the body wall. To determine icg extraction and clearance, a bolus injection of icg (0.5 mg/kg, iv) was administered, followed by steady-state infusion of 0.097 mg/min. Extractions and clearances of icg were measured, and from these, hepatic plasma flow rates were determined immediately before and after banding and at 6 hours, 48 hours, and 7 days after banding.

The gradient (caudal vena caval pressure within 1 to 2 mm of Hg of portal pressure) between caudal vena cava and portal venous pressures established at banding was maintained after the first hour in both groups. Caudal vena cava pressures established at banding were maintained throughout the study, with the exception of the first hour in diseased dogs. Extraction ratios were higher in control dogs at all times, except at 48 hours. Clearance was higher in control dogs at all times. Hepatic plasma flow did not differ between groups, except immediately after banding, when flow was greater in diseased dogs, and differences were not found over time in either group. This study indicated that vena caval banding in this model of experimentally induced multiple pss increases and maintains caudal vena cava pressure, relative to portal venous pressure (after the first hour) for 7 days, and that calculated hepatic plasma flow is not persistently improved by vena caval banding.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, such as to close ventral midline celiotomies. Self-locking knots, specifically forwarder knots tied with dry suture and Aberdeen knots tied with large-gauge suture have higher KHC and RKS but lower weight and volume than do surgeon's knots. 2

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research