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Summary

In the second part of this 4-part series, drug therapy in cats is discussed by use of a systems approach. Specifically, drugs that can be used safely for treatment of disorders affecting the feline gastrointestinal, central nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, and urogenital systems are described. Many drugs that are used in dogs can be safely used in cats according to the same or similar dosing regimens. Several drugs that have traditionally been considered inappropriate (eg, morphine derivatives, primidone) can probably also be used, if cautiously, in cats. In contrast, use of several drugs that are safely used in other species should be avoided in cats (eg, selected emetics and antiemetics, phosphate salt enemas, and selected urinary antiseptics). Cats are more sensitive than dogs to the adverse side effects of a variety of drugs (eg, aspirin, digoxin, selected antiarrhythmics), and extra precautions must be taken when these drugs are used in cats. Finally, several drugs are used for the treatment of illnesses that tend to be unique to cats (eg, taurine and calcium-channel blockers in selected feline cardiovascular disorders).

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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harmful effects, such as the blockade of calcium and potassium channels in cardiac cells and direct action on the CNS, have also been considered. 43 In the United States, saxitoxins are being detected in northern lake waters with increasing frequency

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, leading to an increase in inositol triphosphate and protein kinase C activation, followed in turn by release of calcium from intracellular stores. 39 Unlike GHS-R 1a, GHS-R 1b does not bind ghrelin or synthetic GHSs, and its function awaits clarification

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

combination with TCAs or SSRIs prior to departures and/or q 8–12 h 20+ mg/kg Binds as a ligand to a2§ subunit Sedation, ataxia, salivation, vomiting of voltage gate calcium, channels causing a decrease in the release of neurotransmitters like the excitatory

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

16 weeks, b and an unfavorable calcium-to-phosphorus ratio (0.03) in the diet of discus fish for a similar duration did not cause LLD. 14 Activated carbon— Once the carbon cycle in a system reaches steady-state, dissolved organic carbon compounds

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Calmodulin 1 is a ubiquitous, calcium-binding protein that regulates calcium signaling and may be involved in collagenases and proteoglycanase activity. 139 Calmodulin 1 expression is increased in hip joint and knee joint osteoarthritic cartilage, compared

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research