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, catabolic hormones (myostatin and glucocorticoids), low concentrations of anabolic hormones (insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1), increased cytosolic calcium, and oxidative stress. 11,14 Oxidative stress and NFκB are important regulators of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

considered appropriate for growth. 12 Food B contained greater amounts of protein, fat, calcium, phosphorus, threonine, methionine, linoleic acid, EPA, DHA, total n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, carnitine, vitamin E, and vitamin C, whereas food A contained more

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

tendon contracture in very young foals but not older foals. However, the mechanisms by which this tendon lengthening develops are unclear. 3,5–7 Because oxytetracycline chelates calcium, it has been hypothesized that systemically administered

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

muscle cell cultures have been used to investigate myoblast differentiation and muscle regeneration, 29 calcium regulation, 30 and muscle contraction 31 in in vitro models of equine recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis and the production of reactive

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

activity in horses with PSSM was fed to determine an exercise target for each horse. The diet consisted of molasses-supplemented grain (3.4 g/kg of BW), calcium-balanced rice bran (1.8 g/kg of BW), and ration balancer (1 g/kg of BW) and was divided into 2

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

000110050027 21 Zhuang H , Wang W , Seldes RM , et al. Electrical stimulation induces the level of TGF-beta1 mRNA in osteoblastic cells by a mechanism involving calcium/calmodulin pathway . Biochem Biophys Res

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

moderate dietary protein and phosphate restriction on calcium-phosphate homeostasis in healthy older cats . J Vet Intern Med 2016 ; 30 : 1690 – 1702 . 10.1111/jvim.14563 8. Peterson ME Castellano CA Rishniw M . Evaluation of body weight, body

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

that osteogenic differentiation is shown by alkaline phosphatase staining (B) or by an accumulation of calcium deposits (C) following von Kossa staining. D—Photomicrograph of equine MSCs after culture in 3-dimensional conditions suitable to promote

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

breakdown in muscles. Horses with PPID have increased expression of m-calpain, which is part of the nonlysosomal calcium protease-dependent system associated with protein breakdown. 17 Results of that study suggest that calpains may be associated with

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Equine Vet J 2010 ; 42 ( suppl 38 ): 268 – 274 . 10.1111/j.2042-3306.2010.00271.x 34. Ward TL Valberg SJ Gallant EM , et al. Calcium regulation by skeletal muscle membranes of horses with recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis . Am J Vet Res

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research