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Alterations in serum calcium and magnesium concentrations are common in horses that are affected by a variety of disorders (eg, exercise-induced electrolyte loss, chronic renal failure, and sepsis). 1–4 In addition, because of their influence on

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives

To determine usefulness of a micropartition system for calcium fractionation of canine serum, and to establish reference values for protein-bound, complexed, and ionized calcium fractions in clinically normal dogs.

Design

Performance characteristics of a micropartition system were evaluated, using serum from clinically normal dogs. This micropartition system was then used to determine a reference range for calcium fractions.

Animals

13 clinically normal dogs.

Procedure

Dog serum was placed in the micropartition system, and spun for 20 minutes at 1,300 × g. Total calcium concentration, ionized calcium concentration, and pH were measured in whole serum, and total calcium concentration was measured in the ultrafiltrate. The protein-bound fraction was calculated by subtracting total calcium of the ultrafiltrate from total calcium of whole serum. The ionized calcium measurement of whole serum was subtracted from the total calcium measurement of the ultrafiltrate, determining the complexed calcium fraction.

Results

During validation of the ability of the micropartition system to separate calcium fractions, no significant amount of serum calcium was adsorbed by the plastic micropartition system or membrane. The micropartition membrane separated the protein-bound calcium fraction (retentate) from the ultrafiltrate, which contained ionized and complexed fractions of calcium. Concentrations of protein-bound, ionized, and complexed calcium from clinically normal dogs were determined to be 3.40 ± 0.63, 5.49 ± 0.17, and 1.01 ± 0.30 mg/dl, representing 34, 56, and 10% of the total calcium concentration, respectively.

Conclusions

This method is a rapid, repeatable means to completely fractionate serum calcium, and most importantly provides accurate assessment of the protein-bound and complexed calcium fractions.

Clinical Relevance

Complete assessment of calcium fractions may increase sensitivity for detection of disease processes that affect calcium metabolism.(Am J Vet Res 1996;57:268-271 )

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

We tested the hypothesis that lymphocytes from swine with susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (mh) had calcium extrusion activity higher than unaffected swine. Cytoplasmic concentration of ionized calcium was determined by use of dual emission spectrofluorometry and measurement of the ratio of free to calcium-bound form of the fluorescent calcium dye indo-1. Net calcium accumulation and unidirectional calcium extrusion rate were dependent on intracellular calcium concentration. Calcium extrusion from calcium-loaded lymphocytes was monitored while calcium influx was inhibited by suspending the cells in calcium-free medium with a calcium chelator. Net calcium accumulation of untreated lymphocytes was monitored in calcium-replete medium. A novel method of calculation of ionized calcium was used. This method confirmed our previous findings of lower ionized calcium concentration (86 ± 40 and 370 ± 216 nmol/L; P < 0.01) and slower rates of calcium accumulation 39 ± 16 and 127 ± 52 nmol/L/min) in untreated lymphocytes from mh-susceptible swine compared with controls. These changes were attributable to calcium extrusion activity two- to three-fold higher in lymphocytes of mh-susceptible swine (154 ± 36 and 408 ± 47 nmol/L/min at 175 nmol/L; 972 ± 111 and 1,690 ± 505 nmol/L/min at 425 nmol/L). These data were compatible with our model of higher calcium extrusion activity being a compensatory adaptation of mh-susceptible swine lymphocytes to their hypersensitivity to stimuli that increase cytoplasmic calcium concentration.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

citrate, with nonsphering of platelets in citrate also potentially causing an artifactual increase in MPV. 1 Citrate, which chelates positively charged calcium ions and thereby blocks calcium-dependent clotting factor reactions, is the anticoagulant

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Blood, serum, and plasma total calcium concentrations and plasma and serum ionized calcium concentrations were anaerobically determined by use of a calcium-specific electrode for samples obtained from 39 healthy horses. Mean (± sd) serum ionized calcium concentration was 6.6 ± 0.3 mg/dl (1.6 ± 0.1 mmol/L) and the mean serum ionized calcium percentage was 58.2 ± 3.4%. Serum ionized calcium percentage was not significantly correlated with serum pH. Plasma ionized calcium percentage was weakly correlated with plasma pH (r = − 0.480; P ≤ 0.05). Ionized calcium concentration was determined in serum samples manipulated in vitro by additions of 1 to 80 μl of 0.1N hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide to yield 6 to 10 pH values between 6.8 and 8.2. In all horses, the relationship between serum ionized calcium percentage and serum pH at these pH values was then examined by use of a repeated-measures multiple regression analysis. Correlations between serum ionized calcium percentage and adjusted serum pH value for each horse were highly significant (P ≤ 0.05); however, analysis of pooled data from all horses indicated that a statistically significant relationship between serum pH and ionized calcium percentage did not exist. Lack of a significant relationship between these variables was most likely attributable to heterogeneity of variance of ionized calcium percentage among horses, reflecting variation in undefined biochemical constituents of serum that affect the equilibrium of calcium binding. When it is essential to evaluate the calcium status of a horse, direct measurement of serum ionized calcium concentration is recommended.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

diastolic blood pressures were measured at the times of blood sample collection in all groups. Concentrations of ionized calcium, sodium, potassium, and chloride and values of pHa, PaO 2 , and PaCO 2 were measured in arterial blood samples with selective

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The stability of ionized calcium (CaI) concentration and pH in sera (n = 14) stored at 23 or 4 C for 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, or 72 hours, or −10 C for 1, 3, 7, 14, or 30 days was evaluated. Also studied were the effects of oxygen exposure, cold handling, and feeding on CaI and pH values. Results indicated that serum CaI concentration was stable throughout 72 hours of storage at 23 or 4 C, and for 7 days at −10 C. Serum CaI concentration significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by 14 days of storage at −10 C. Serum pH was stable for 6 hours at 23 or 4 C, and for 24 hours at −10 C, but significantly (P < 0.05) increased by 9 hours of storage at 23 or 4 C and by 3 days at −10 C. Exposure of the surface of the serum to air immediately before measurement had no effect on CaI or pH values, but mixing serum with air resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) decreased CaI concentration and increased pH. Handling of blood on ice resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) higher serum pH, compared with blood handled at 23 C, but serum CaI concentration was unaffected. Serum obtained at 2 hours after feeding did not have any significant changes in CaI total calcium, or pH values. It appears that if canine serum is obtained, handled, and stored anaerobically, CaI concentration can be accurately measured after 72 hours at 23 or 4 C, or after 7 days at −10 C.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, creatinine, urea, ALT, ALP, glucose, calcium, phosphates, sodium, chloride, potassium, and CO 2 . Quality control was based on weekly measurement of control solutions with known concentrations. d According to the manufacturer, values for the assays had been

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

% of the starch molecules carry a hydroxyethyl group). Hydroxyethyl starch molecules can be suspended in a variety of fluids, with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution and 5% dextrose in water being the most common. A calcium-containing polyionic HES solution

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-Araçatuba Animal Care and Use Committee. Sample collection and analyses —Briefly, blood samples from all 3 species were collected from the jugular vein into 1-mL lithium-heparinized plastic syringes containing 50 U of lyophilized calcium-balanced lithium heparin

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research