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calcium) of extracellular calcium. *Significant ( P < 0.05) difference between groups. Effects of diltiazem on contractile responses of laminar arteries and veins to phenylephrine, 5-HT, and ET-1 —Preincubation of laminar arteries with diltiazem (10

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

molecular mechanisms underlying the cardiac adaptation of Tibetan antelope to high altitudes, we cloned genes related to cardiac function (CaMKIIδ, ANP, and BNP) from Tibetan antelope and Tibetan sheep and then compared their degrees of expression. Calcium

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

evaluated in samples of PLRP with no exogenous stimulation and after the ex vivo addition of a series of agonists. All reactions were carried out in 5-mL polystyrene tubes o in a labeling buffer p containing final concentrations of 2mM ionized calcium and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

sensitization of cardiac troponin C to calcium and PDE III inhibition, whereas the vasodilatory effect of pimobendan results primarily from PDE III inhibition. 15–17 Pimobendan induces both venodilation and arteriolar dilation in dogs with propranolol

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Pimobendan a is a calcium-sensitizing drug with PDE3- and partial PDE5–inhibiting properties that has been shown to improve survival time in dogs with congestive heart failure secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy and chronic valvular heart disease

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

regimens included administration of diuretics (furosemide or spironolactone), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ramipril or benazepril), β-adrenergic receptor antagonists (atenolol or sotalol), a calcium channel blocker (diltiazem), an inodilator

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

halothane and isoflurane has been associated with reduced availability of intracellular calcium ions and decreased responsiveness of the cardiac contractile apparatus to calcium ions, rather than to inhibitory mitochondrial effects. 27 Therefore, there are

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

include those associated with muscle contraction and calcium signaling such as myotilin ( MYOT ), purinergic receptor P2X 6 ( P2RX6 ), myosin light chain 6B ( MYL6B ), death-associated protein kinase 3 ( DAPK3 ), and calcium voltage-gated channel subunit α

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

with a fluorogenic substrate–calcium solution. g Fluorescence intensity was recorded with a spectrofluorometer h at 1-minute intervals for 120 minutes, with excitation and emission wavelengths of 360 and 460 nm, respectively. Thrombin concentration

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

relationship to baseline values obtained at time 0). The TEM analyses for each sample were performed in parallel on 2 channels of a TEM instrument, 1 with (20 μL of calcium solution, m 20 μL of kaolin solution i [5 g/L], and 300 μL of citrated blood) and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research