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of the Université de Montréal. Bronchoscopy and BAL —Bronchoalveolar lavages were performed in the morning (from 8:00 AM to 10:00 AM) by use of standard procedures for our laboratory. 1 Briefly, horses were sedated with xylazine a (0.3 to 0.4 mg

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To study the effects of extended transportation on the composition of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) obtained from horses.

Animals

30 horses (14 males, 16 females; 25 Thoroughbreds and 5 Thoroughbred-Arabian crossbreds; 27 to 30 months old) without a history or clinical signs of respiratory tract disease. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed on nontransported control horses (groups 1 and 2) and transported horses (group 3).

Procedure

20 horses were used to determine the effect of 41 hours of transportation on the composition of BALF (group 3). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for recovered volume, number and distribution of nucleated cells, total protein and phospholipid concentrations, and phospholipid composition.

Results

Total number of nucleated cells in BALF from group-3 horses increased by approximately fourfold after transportation. Total protein concentration in BALF from group-3 horses also increased by approximately fivefold after transportation. Total phosphorus concentrations in group-3 horses decreased significantly from time 0 to immediately after transportation. In group-3 horses, the most characteristic change in composition of BALF after transport was a significant decrease in the concentration of phosphatidylglycerol.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

The decrease in phosphatidylglycerol concentration in BALF after transportation indicates a reduction in the quantity of surfactant. This change may reflect either a decreased production of surfactant by alveolar type II epithelial cells or an increased removal of surfactant from the alveolar region. It is likely that extended transportation resulted in a decreased concentration of surfactant in BALF. Such a decrease may reduce the pulmonary defence mechanisms in the alveolar region, possibly resulting in infection. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:531–534)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objective

To correlate indices of airway reactivity to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cytologic features in horses with a recent decline in exercise tolerance.

Animals

20 actively working horses from 2 to 24 years old.

Procedure

Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were obtained and analyzed. Forced oscillatory mechanics (1-7 Hz) technique was used for measurements of total respiratory system resistance (RRS), compliance (CRS), and resonant frequency (fres). Changes in RRS (1 Hz) during histamine challenge were used to generate histamine dose-response curves, from which the provocative concentrations that evoked a 75 or 100% increase in baseline RRS (PCRRS75 and PCRRS100, respectively) were determined. Age, sex, baseline lung mechanics, and BAL cytologic findings were correlated with PCRRS75 and PCRRS100.

Results

No horse of the study had clinical signs or history of obstructive pulmonary disease or increased percentage (> 7%) of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples. Mean (± SEM) RRS, CRS, and fres were 0.67 ± 0.06 cm of H2O/L/s, 0.52 ± 0.04 L/cm H2O, and 2.46 ± 0.02 Hz, respectively. There was no correlation between age or sex, and RRS, CRS, fres, PCRRS75, or PCRRS100. There was a significant correlation (rs = −0.78, P < 0.001) between percentage of BAL fluid mast cells and PCRRS75 or PCRRS100, but correlation with other cell types and indices of airway reactivity were not observed.

Conclusion

The strong association between mast cell percentage in BAL fluid and airway reactivity in this group suggests that mast cell products may contribute to bronchospasm, airway wall thickening, and/or loss of elastic recoil, which underlie airway hyperreactivity. Alternatively, mast cells may contribute to nonspecific airway reactivity in horses through unknown mechanisms. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:176–181)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The effect of prior Rhodococcus equi-induced pneumonia on pulmonary health was investigated in 5 horses (< 24 months old) using endoscopy, radiography, hematologic and bronchoalveolar lavage analyses, and pulmonary function testing. Rhodococcus equi-induced pnuemonia had been diagnosed in principal horses when they were foals. Diagnosis was based on positive results of transtracheal aspiration and thoracic radiography at the time of initial clinical examination. Results of reevalution of the respiratory system of these horses (R + ) were compared with those of 5 age-matched healthy horses (R −) that lacked clinical or historical evidence of foalhood pneumonia.

Significant differences in variables between the 2 groups of horses were not evident. In both groups, most horses had radiographic evidence of an accentuated bronchointerstitial pattern, although results of analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were normal and mononuclear cells predominated. Variability in results of the pulmonary function tests was observed within and between the 2 groups of horses. Only normalized dynamic lung compliance was slightly lower in the previously infected horses, but this difference was not significant. We concluded that horses previously infected with and successfuly treated for R equi-induced pneumonia do not have detectable evidence of residual lung damage.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the effects of ozone and airway inflammation on indices of oxidant injury in horses.

Animals

5 clinically normal horses and 25 horses referred for poor performance

Procedure

Blood, tracheal wash, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected before and after ozone exposure (n = 5) or from clinical cases (n = 25), and were analyzed for reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), and free and total iron (Fe) values. A scor ing system (0 to 5) was used to assess airway inflammation on the basis of clinical signs and cytologic analysis of the tracheal wash and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples.

Results

Ozone induced significant (P < 0.05) increases in GSH (195.4 ± 68.5 μM, GSSG (19.4 ± 6.4 μM). and free (25.5 ± 16.1 μM) and total (93.1 ± 13.4 μM) Fe values in the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid, compared with preozone samples (49.2 ± 18.6, 2.4 ± 1.2, 0.0, and 33.1 ± 5.9 μM, respectively). The presence of airway inflammation (19/25) was associated with high GSSG and free and total Fe, but not GSH, values in epithelial lining fluid, compared with values for clinically normal horses (6/25). There were no differences in the systemic values of GSH, GSSG, and free and total Fe between any of the groups. A strong correlation (r = 0.84; P < 0.001) existed between inflammation score and the glutathione redox ratio (GSSG/IGSH + GSSG]) in the 25 horses admitted for clinical examination

Conclusions

Oxidant injury in the lung will induce changes in the glutathione status and Fe homeostasis that could affect pathogenesis of the disease.

Clinical Relevance

Measurement of indices of oxidant injury may be useful in the diagnosis of airway inflammation and the response to inhaled oxidants. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1359-1363)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

phagocytic and oxidative burst activity, neutrophil L-selectin intensity, and hematologic values were determined as described. 22,23 BALF sample collection and annexin A1 analysis Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were obtained only from the steers

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Similar to findings for the present study, prophylactic treatment with Yunnan Baiyao had no beneficial effect on laboratory variables and resulted in no difference in blood loss measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for horses with exercise

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research