Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for :

  • "bronchoalveolar lavage" x
  • Microbiology x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

Summary

Fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed in pigs to assess bacterial contamination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (balf) obtained by use of the method and to determine the aerobic bacterial species in bronchoalveolar airways of healthy pigs. Bacterial contamination of balf caused by insertion of the bronchoscope was evaluated, using a chromogenic bacterial tracer strain, and was found to be 0.22% of total colony-forming units (cfu), with range between 0 and 1.6%. A total of 164 pulmonary-healthy pigs from 6 closed herds were selected. The balf obtained from these pigs were examined bacteriologically. Bacteria could not be isolated from 10.4% of all balf; 5.5% of the balf samples yielded pure cultures; and 84.1% yielded mixed aerobic bacterial growth. In balf from 29.2% of the pigs, ≤ 5 × 102 cfu of bacteria/ml were isolated. The total number of bacteria in balf from 50% of the pigs varied between 5 × 102 and 103 cfu/ml; 10.4% of balf samples contained between 103 cfu/ml and 5 × 103 cfu/ml. More than 1 bacterial species were isolated from a single lung lavage of 84.1% of the pigs. Up to 6 species were isolated from a single balf sample. A total of 443 bacterial isolates were differentiated into 25 bacterial genera and species. Samples of balf yielded staphylococci (67.6%: Staphylococcus hyicus from 13.4% of the samples and S aureus from 2.4%), α-hemolytic streptococci (49.4%), Escherichia coli (42.1%), non-hemolytic streptococci (26.2%), Klebsiella spp (18.3%), micrococci (12.8%), and Coryneformes (11.0%). Other bacterial species were found, but less frequently. In our study, balf from all pigs yielded < 5 × 103 cfu/ml. Thus, low numbers of bacteria known to be facultative pathogens were isolated from balf without causing detectable pneumonia.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine systemic and mucosal antibody responses in calves to Pasteurella haemolytica 1:A and to 2 major outer membrane proteins (OMP) and 1 major iron-regulated OMP of P haemolytica 1:A.

Animals

23 crossbred calves.

Procedure

2 experiments were performed. In the first experiment, 6 calves were vaccinated and challenge exposed intranasally with an aerosol of P haemolytica 1:A and 6 calves were only challenge exposed. In the second experiment, 8 calves were vaccinated in the area of the tracheal bifurcation with an aerosol of P haemolytica 1:A and 3 calves were used as controls. Serum, nasal secretions, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were collected, and IgG1, IgG2, IgA, and IgM titers were determined. Nasal secretions and BAL samples were also submitted for bacterial culture.

Results

Serum antibody responses in the 2 groups were similar. Antibody titers in nasal secretions and BAL samples increased in calves vaccinated intranasally. In calves vaccinated in the area of the tracheal bifurcation, antibody titers increased in BAL samples but not in nasal secretions. Antibody responses did not correlate with results of bacterial culture.

Conclusions

Results indicated that intranasal administration of P haemolytica 1:A may be a better method for stimulating protective immune responses in the upper portion of the respiratory tract than lung administration. The single dilution ELISA provided a reliable and economical method for determining antibody titers. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:727-732)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

In a search of viral agents in pulmonary macrophages of horses with chronic pulmonary disease, equine herpesvirus 2 was found to be unique. In 8 of 9 horses with chronic pulmonary disease, antigens of equine herpesvirus 2 were detected by indirect immunofluorescence staining of scattered foamy macrophages immediately after harvesting by bronchoalveolar lavage and fractionation on metrizamide gradients. In a healthy horse, antigens were not found. After 1 week of cultivation of bronchoalveolar lavage cells from a second group of 9 horses with chronic pulmonary disease, viral antigens were detected in 90% of the adherent pulmonary macrophages. In 2 of 3 healthy horses, viral antigens also were found in 90% of the adherent pulmonary macrophages. Antigens of equine herpesvirus 1, equine herpesvirus 4, parainfluenza virus 3, or adenovirus were not detected. Antigens of the 5 investigated viruses also were not detected in lung tissue slices from a third group of 14 horses: 4 healthy; 7 with varying degrees of bronchiolitis, 2 of which also had chronic intestitial pneumonia; 2 with eosinophilic bronchitis; and 1 with pulmonary hemorrhage.

The exclusive presence of equine herpesvirus 2 in pulmonary macrophages was confirmed qualitatively by isolation of infective virus by cocultivation. In a fourth group of 12 horses with chronic pulmonary disease, infective virus could be isolated from pulmonary macrophages of 3 horses and from mixed- blood leukocytes of 5 horses. Virus isolations from 2 healthy horses were not successful from pulmonary macrophages, whereas 1 isolation was obtained from mixed-blood leukocytes. Other viruses were not detected by cocultivation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To assess shedding of ovine lentivirus (OvLV) in semen of infected rams with or without epididymitis.

Design

Rams 1 and 2 were naturally infected with OvLV. Rams 3-6 were inoculated with OvLV strain 85/ 34. Ram 7 was inoculated with uninfected cell culture supernatatant (OvLV-negative control). 14 weeks after OvLV inoculation, rams 1-3, 6, and 7 were inoculated with Brucella ovis into the epididymis. Ram 4 was a natural case of B ovis epididymitis, and ram 5 was left non-inoculated (Bovis-negative control). Blood mononuclear cells (BMNC) and semen were collected between 0 and 44 weeks after OvLV inoculation.

Animals

Seven 2- to 3-year-old rams.

Procedure

Infective OvLV in BMNC and semen was determined by virus isolation and subsequent OvLV-DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bronchoalveolar lavage cells collected after death were used for DNA extraction and PCR amplification.

Results

OvLV was detected in the semen of rams 3 and 6, but only after Bovis inoculation. OvLV was isolated consistently from BMNC of rams 3 and 6, but only occasionally from rams 1, 2, 4, and 5. Leukocytospermia was evident in every ejaculate of all Bovis-infected rams after infection. Semiquantitative PCR determination of OvLV DNA from bronchoalveolar lavage cells revealed the highest OvLV DNA load in rams 3 and 6.

Conclusions

Leukocytospermia and a high virus load in infected animals are important factors that determine shedding of OvLV in semen.

Clinical Relevance

Dissemination of OvLV through contaminated semen could have important implications in the epidemiology and control of this infection. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:684–688)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research