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Summary

Twenty-four healthy cats underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage to determine the normal cytologic environment of the lower respiratory tract of cats. Initial screening to ensure the health of the study population included complete histories, physical examinations, thoracic radiography, cbc, serologic tests for feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, and occult heartworm, and sugar and Baermann fecal flotation. In 18 cats, protected catheter brush samples of airway secretions from the lavaged lung segment were taken for culture of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and mycoplasma. Bronchial lavage fluid (5 sequential 10-ml aliquots of normal saline solution) was pooled and filtered with cotton gauze. The unspun sample was used for determination of a total nucleated cell count. Lavage fluid was cytocentrifuged and 500 cells/slide were scored for determination of the cellular differential. Activity of lactate dehydrogenase and concentrations of total protein and IgG within the supernatant were measured, and assays were performed to detect the presence of IgA and IgM. Complete histologic evaluation of the lavaged lung of each of 6 random-source cats was performed after differential cell counting revealed 18% eosinophils within bronchoalveolar lavage fluid recovered from this group.

Alveolar macrophages were the predominant cells encountered; however, a quarter of all cells recovered were eosinophils. A significant relationship was not found between the abundance of eosinophils in the lavage fluid, and either isolation of aerobic bacteria, high total nucleated cell counts, total protein concentrations, or activity of lactate dehydrogenase. Histologic evaluation of the lungs of 5 of 6 random-source cats revealed normal lungs in 2 cats, and minimal abnormal change in 3 others. Evaluation of the lungs from 1 random source cat revealed acute, mild eosinophilic bronchiolitis. We conclude that large numbers of eosinophils may be retrieved from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of healthy cats.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The α1-proteinase inhibitors of trypsin, Spi1, Spi3A, and Spi3B, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (balf) and serum of horses were separated by electrophoresis, and their proportions were quantified in 12 control horses and 12 with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (cofd). A significantly lower proportion of Spi3B (P < 0.05) and higher proportion of Spi1 (P < 0.02 to P < 0.01) were detected in balf, compared with serum, in control and copd-affected horses and appeared to be attributable to reduced Spi3 activity in balf. There was no significant difference between the control and copd groups in this respect, indicating that the decrease in Spi3 may be a physiologic phenomenon. The differences observed may be associated with proteolytic damage to or preferential complex formation by Spi3.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Cytologic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (balf), including phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes, was performed on 32 Standardbreds with poor race performance and endoscopic examination findings characteristic of inflammatory airway disease (iad). Nucleated cell counts in balf from iad-affected horses were higher than those in control horses; the cytologic profile of balf in affected horses included mixed inflammation, characterized by mild neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, and monocytosis. Eosinophil and mast cell counts were not higher in the iad-affected group, compared with those in the control group; however, 4 iad-affected horses had marked eosinophilia (24.7 ± 4.8% SEM) in balf. Phenotypic analysis of lymphocytes in balf obtained from IAD-affected horses revealed a low proportion of CD4-positive cells and B cells, compared with those in the control group; these findings may have been representative of a greater proportion of non-B, non-T cells (null cells) in horses with iad. The cytologic profile of balf obtained from horses with iad differed from that in horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting that the pathogenesis of inflammation in horses with iad may differ from that of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed through an endotracheal tube in 34 specific-pathogen-free cats to determine expected values for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytologic analysis, using this method of collection. Saline solution for lavage was instilled in 3 separate aliquots at a volume of 5 ml/kg of body weight each. Analysis of sequential aliquots was performed to investigate the differences in cell counts among the 3 fractions. The effect of combining aliquots, including or omitting the first fraction, was evaluated to determine whether all aliquots could be combined for analysis without substantially affecting results.

The total number of nucleated cells retrieved from each cat ranged from 0.9 to 31.1 × 106. Most of these cells were macrophages (78 ± 15%, mean ± sd) and eosinophils (16 ± 14%). The first aliquot had the greatest number of epithelial cells, and the lowest total nucleated cell count and relative and absolute eosinophil counts. Differences among aliquots also were identified for relative and absolute macrophage counts, relative and absolute neutrophil counts, and absolute lymphocyte count. Statistically significant differences were found for many of the cell counts when values from the combination of the second and third aliquots were compared with values from the combination of all 3 aliquots. Magnitude of the differences was small, and these differences were not believed to be of practical consequence.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Pneumonic pasteurellosis was experimentally induced in calves by inoculation of 5 × 108 Pasteurella haemolytica organisms into the right diaphragmatic lung lobe. Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were obtained prior to inoculation and at postinoculation hour (pih) 2, 4, and 6. Calves developed acute lung injury, characteristic of pneumonic pasteurellosis. Lesions were found only in the right diaphragmatic lobe. By pih 4, significant (P < 0.01) increases were detected in lavage fluid total cell count, neutrophil count, total protein and albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (alp) and lactic dehydrogenase (ld) activities. Myeloperoxidase and elastase activities did not increase. Neutrophil depletion ameliorated the lung lesions and prevented the increase in lavage fluid cell count, total protein, and albumin concentrations and alp and ld activities. Treatment with the iron chelator, deferoxamine mesylate-hydroxyethyl starch, attenuated the increase in total protein and albumin concentrations and alp and ld activities at pid 4, but not pih 6. Treatment with a neutrophil function inhibitor, pentoxifylline, prevented the increase in lavage fluid neutrophil numbers, but accentuated the increase in total protein and albumin concentrations, and alp, ld, myeloperoxidase, and elastase activities.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To establish concentration of hyaluronate (HA) in tracheal lavage fluid from healthy horses and horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Animals and Samples

Tracheal lavage fluid samples (n = 42) from 18 horses, 11 with COPD, and 7 control horses.

Procedure

Clinical examination of the respiratory tract, tracheal lavage, and blood sample collection were performed on horses without clinical signs of respiratory tract disease and horses with clinical signs of COPD. In some horses, 1 to 5 repeated examinations were performed at 1-week intervals. Tracheal lavage fluid samples were analyzed for cell numbers, and urea concentration (made in parallel with serum samples to evaluate sample dilution effect); HA was determined by radiometric assay.

Results

Mean (± SEM) HA concentration in tracheal lavage fluid samples was significantly (P = 0.005) higher in horses with COPD (1,880 [± 309] μg/L), compared with that in control horses (256 [± 72] μg/L). The increase in HA concentration in tracheal lavage fluid of COPD-affected horses was verified by repeated sample collection and analysis.

Conclusions

In horses with chronic respiratory tract inflammation such as COPD, tracheal lavage fluid HA concentration is about 7 times higher than reference values. High HA concentration in the tracheal or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid may reflect pathophysiologic changes in connective tissue around bronchi and bronchioli, leading to continuous increased production of HA in horses with advanced forms of COPD.

Clinical Relevance

Determination of tracheal lavage fluid HA concentration may be used as a marker of chronic inflammatory changes in the COPD-affected lung. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:729–732)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

(Intuitive Biosciences). Bronchoalveolar lavage samples yielded positive results of MTBC PCR assay for 8 animals and negative results for 2 animals; 1 macaque was not tested. However, subsequent repeated PCR testing of all animals yielded negative results

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research