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Cardiovascular diseases are common in avian species. 1–5 Among these diseases, atherosclerosis is highly prevalent in aging parrots such as African grey parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ) and Amazon parrots ( Amazona spp). 2,6–10 Psittacine

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-dependent effects of statins . Arterioscler Thromh Vasc Biol 2003 ; 23 : 729 – 736 . 10.1161/01.ATV.0000063385.12476.A7 9 Preli RB Klein KP Herrington DM . Vascular effects of dietary L-arginine supplementation . Atherosclerosis 2002 ; 162 : 1

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

with DM have myocardial dysfunction, which is characterized by ventricular structural or functional abnormalities in the absence of coronary atherosclerosis and hypertension. 6,7 Diastolic dysfunction has been observed in humans with type 1 and type 2

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

.1055/s-0038-1656073 30. Paramo JA Beloqui O Roncal C , et al. Validation of plasma fibrinogen as a marker of carotid atherosclerosis in subjects free of clinical cardiovascular disease . Haematologica 2004 ; 89 : 1226 – 1231 . 31

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

cardiac death in adult humans is acute myocardial infarction and heart failure caused by coronary atherosclerosis. 5 This notable difference, combined with the postural and metabolic differences between chimpanzees and humans, 6 suggests that the 2

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

: 24 – 26 . 10.1136/vr.152.1.24 10. Phalen DN Hays HB Filippich LJ , Heart failure in a macaw with atherosclerosis of the aorta and brachiocephalic arteries . J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996 ; 209 : 1435 – 1440 . 11. Pees M Straub J

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Thrombolysis 2011 ; 32 : 82 – 88 . 10.1007/s11239-011-0550-4 8. Nasir K , Tsai M , Rosen BD , et al. Elevated homocysteine is associated with reduced regional left ventricular function: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis . Circulation

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

cardiovascular disease as the most common cause. Although cardiomyopathies appear to be the predominant pathology, arteriosclerosis or atherosclerosis seems to be a coexisting factor, particularly in female chimpanzees. 6 Despite a recent report 7 suggesting

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SJ , et al. Response to sex hormones differs in atherosclerosis-susceptible and -resistant mice . Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2003 ; 285 : E1237 – E1245 . 10.1152/ajpendo.00451.2002 45. Oyama MA Chittur SV . Genomic expression patterns

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

microparticles have been identified in humans with many disease conditions, including atherosclerosis, deep vein thrombosis, sepsis, diabetes, endocrine diseases, preeclampsia, lupus, and stroke. 6,11–16 Although a prothrombotic tendency is common to many of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research