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characteristics of joint fluid obtained via arthrocentesis. Arthrocentesis performed through cellulitic tissue is perceived to be risky in that needles advanced through infected tissue (skin and subepidermal layers) may deposit bacteria into an otherwise normal

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the limb held and the carpus flexed. The joint capsule was penetrated at a depth of approximately 1.3 cm. Arthrocentesis of the fetlock joint was performed with the limb in flexion and the needle inserted into the lateral aspect of the palmar pouch

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate anticollagen type I antibodies in synovial fluid of the affected stifle joint, the contralateral stifle joint, and the left shoulder joint of dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture during an extended period of 12 to 18 months.

Animals—13 client-owned dogs with CrCL rupture and 2 sham-operated dogs.

Procedures—All dogs were examined and arthrocentesis of all 3 joints was performed every 6 months after surgery. Synovial fluid samples were tested for anticollagen type I antibodies by use of an ELISA.

Results—Dogs with partial CrCL rupture had higher antibody titers than dogs with complete rupture. Six of 13 dogs ruptured the contralateral CrCL during the study, whereby higher antibody titers were found for the stifle joints than for the shoulder joint. Seronegative dogs or dogs with extremely low antibody titers and 2 dogs with high antibody titers did not sustain a CrCL rupture in the contralateral stifle joint.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In most dogs that had a CrCL rupture of the contralateral stifle joint, a distinct antibody titer gradient toward the stifle joints was detected, suggesting that there was a local inflammatory process in these joints. However, only a small number of sham-operated dogs were used to calculate the cutoff values used to determine the anticollagen type I antibody titers in these patients. Synovial fluid antibodies against collagen type I alone do not initiate CrCL rupture because not all dogs with high antibody titers sustained a CrCL rupture in the contralateral stifle joint.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

of the underlying pathophysiology of this condition. In previous studies, 12,13 we examined changes in synovial fluid that occur with repeated arthrocentesis and joint lavage in healthy calves and in calves with experimentally induced septic

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Septic arthritis is a painful and potentially life-threatening condition in horses that develops when trauma, arthrocentesis, surgery, or bacteremia results in colonization of microorganisms in a joint. 1–5 Bacterial colonization of the synovial

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Arthrocentesis is the standard collection method; however, the actual aspiration of the fluid can be done either neatly (ie, without dilution) or following addition of an intra-articular lavage solution. Although preaspiration lavage is a common procedure to

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

contralateral joint served as a control for each assessment time to account for variation in the environmental temperature and potential diurnal variations in skin temperature. Arthrocentesis of the injected MCJ was aseptically performed at 0, 6, 12, 24, and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

fluid from the radiocarpal joint. Anesthetic cream a (lidocaine [2.5%] and prilocaine [2.5%]) was applied 1 hour prior to collection to desensitize the skin and minimize adverse reactions to the arthrocentesis procedure. Furthermore, because repeated

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

radiographic views of the hip and stifle joints. Exclusion criteria included pregnancy; fractious nature; systemic or active disease of any organ system; intra-articular injections within 90 days of the onset of the study; previous joint surgery; arthrocentesis

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, arthrocentesis of the stifle joint intended to receive surgery was performed. Synovial fluid was aspirated from each stifle joint by use of a 1.5-in 18-gauge needle and syringe, such that all synovial fluid that could readily be aspirated with redirection of the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research