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reduce the discomfort associated with tourniquet application and arthrocentesis for synovial fluid sample collection. Additional sedation was administered if the horse exhibited signs of discomfort (shifting of weight, lifting of the limb, pawing, or

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

), 21 (1 minute after tourniquet release), 25, and 30 minutes after completion of the infusion. Samples of synovial fluid (0.5 mL) were aseptically collected in lithium heparin tubes via arthrocentesis of the DIP joint by use of the dorsal approach at 5

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

removed before horses were returned to their stalls. Collection of synovial and interstitial fluid samples Synovial fluid samples were collected from the metacarpophalangeal joint by repeated aseptic arthrocentesis with a 20-gauge, 3.8-cm needle

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

arthrocentesis of the dorsolateral pouch of the distal interphalangeal joint performed with a 20-gauge, 3.8-cm-long needle. Ten milliliters of venous blood from the jugular vein was collected from all horses before T0 and at 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes (T5, T10, T

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

subcutaneous tissues at the time of necropsy. All dorsomedial arthrocentesis sites had gross hemorrhage evident within the synovial membrane. No other complications were observed in association with the IA catheters. Gentamicin concentration in serum samples

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

with a 20-gauge epidural infusion catheter. f Arthrocentesis was performed over the craniolateral aspect of the joint by use of an 18-gauge, 3.8-cm needle. An injection cap was placed on the needle, and 30 to 50 mL of sterile saline (0.9% NaCl

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

) were collected. Samples of interstitial fluid were collected by replacing the evacuated tubes , k which provided continuous suction on the ultrafiltration probes ( Figure 2 ). Two milliliters of synovial fluid was collected via aseptic arthrocentesis

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research