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associated with heaves. 9 These bronchi models lack ASM, which is important to include because the contractile properties of ASM contribute to airway hyperresponsiveness. 10 Airway smooth muscle also has the ability to synthesize and release bioactive

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

hypo-responsive to the contractile agonists acetylcholine and 5-hydroxytryptamine. Also known as serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptamine is a mediator released from mast cells that is well known to cause airway smooth muscle constriction in many species

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Because of the entrapped air, SPAOPD-affected lungs did not collapse when the thoracic cavity was opened. Airway obstruction is primarily caused by 3 factors (constriction of airway smooth muscle; thickening of airway walls as a result of smooth muscle

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

(primarily in the airway smooth muscle) characterized by proliferation of airway smooth muscle (mitogenic activity) that leads to peribronchial fibrosis and inflammation. All these changes lead to progressive and intractable airway obstruction. With each

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Technical and physiological determinants of airway smooth muscle mass in endobronchial biopsy samples of asthmatic horses . J Appl Physiol 2014 ; 117 : 806 – 815 . 10.1152/japplphysiol.00468.2014 20. Robinson NE Olszewski MA Boehler D , et al

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. 4,11,12 The resultant cooling and hyperosmolarity of the respiratory mucosa are believed to initiate multiple biochemical pathways that lead to damage to the airway epithelium, constriction of airway smooth muscles, and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Leclere M , Lavoie-Lamoureux A , Joubert P , Corticosteroids and antigen avoidance decrease airway smooth muscle mass in an equine asthma model . Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2012 ; 47 ( 5 ): 589 – 596 . 10.1165/rcmb.2011-0363OC 10

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Hasaneen NA , Zucker S , Cao J , et al. Cyclic mechanical strain-induced proliferation and migration of human airway smooth muscle cells: role of EMMPRIN and MMPs . FASEB J 2005 ; 19 : 1507 – 1509 . 10.1096/fj.04-3350fje 26. Koho NM

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

of NBB on airways of different caliber is variable, and any attenuation of antimuscarinic effect could lead to failure to prevent bronchiolar collapse in smaller airways. Differences in the responsiveness of upper versus lower airway smooth muscle to

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Gelinas-Lymburner E , et al. Effect of antigenic exposure on airway smooth muscle remodeling in an equine model of chronic asthma . Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2011 ; 45 : 181 – 187 . 10.1165/rcmb.2010-0300OC 57. Lavoie-Lamoureux A Leclere M

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research