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-cerebello-thalamo-motor cortical activation, with the activation of the pontine tegmental area playing an important role. Multilevel changes of neuronal excitability during upright stance may serve as triggers for activation of the orthostatic tremor circuit. Etiologic

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

/dL; reference interval, 0 to 0.3 mg/dL) and delayed activated partial thromboplastin time (105 seconds; reference range, 72 to 102 seconds); the prothrombin time was within the reference interval (15 seconds; reference interval, 11 to 17 seconds). Radiography

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

nerves II, V, and VII or a diffuse lesion involving the forebrain, brainstem, or both. Because menace and nasal stimulation are responses and not reflexes, mentation changes resulting from a forebrain ascending reticular activating system lesion or severe

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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. With acute thrombus development, collateral circulation does not have sufficient time to develop; thus, clinical signs are expected to be more severe. The use of recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator and streptokinase for thrombolysis in dogs has

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

(central or peripheral location) Collapse in pelvic limbs with slight dorsal pressure L3 to S2 lower motor neurons, ventral horn gray matter, ventral nerve roots, or peripheral motor nerves Obtundation Ascending reticular activating system

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, measurement of activated partial thromboplastin and partial thromboplastin times, testing for A vasorum infection, measurement of blood pressure, a full ophthalmologic examination (including Schirmer tear tests), and MRI of the brain with CSF analysis

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

turn the page . Assessment Anatomic diagnosis Problem Rule out location Mildly decreased level of consciousness Brainstem (ascending reticular activating system) or prosencephalon Positional rotary and vertical

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

diagnosis? Please turn the page. Assessment Anatomic diagnosis Problem Rule out location Mental obtundation Prosencephalon (cerebral cortex, thalamus, or internal capsule) or brainstem (ascending reticular activating

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

activator, streptokinase, warfarin sodium, heparin sodium, dalteparin sodium, aspirin, or clopidogrel bisulphate, and thrombectomy. Response to treatment varies, and prognosis depends on the underlying cause and initial improvement with treatment. 1,1 In

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

menace response deficit (cerebellum or forebrain) Right-sided head turn Forebrain or midbrain Lateral strabismus in right eye Cranial nerve III or midbrain Dull mentation Forebrain, thalamus, or reticular activating system

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association