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explanation for this mixed bag of outcomes. Cyclosporine works by inhibiting calcineurin, an enzyme essential for T-cell production of cytokines such as interleukin-2, and activated T-cell interleukin-2 expression is a measure of the direct effects of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

overdosages be treated aggressively, including induction of emesis followed by administration of activated charcoal in dogs recently exposed. Severely affected dogs may require IV fluid administration and monitoring of hepatic enzyme activities for several

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

exposure in pets; therefore, veterinary professionals must be aware of the risk of animal intoxication. Recently, we examined a dog that had accidentally ingested its owner's hydroxychloroquine. Decontamination (emesis and activated charcoal) prevented

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. Kishimoto TK Viswanathan K Ganguly T , Contaminated heparin associated with adverse clinical events and activation of the contact system . N Engl J Med 2008 ; 358 : 2457 – 2467 . 10.1056/NEJMoa0803200 4. Junod SW . Diethylene glycol deaths in

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

practice, the inevitable lack of control over various aspects of their work life (eg, abrupt changes to their work schedule or never knowing what might walk in the door at any moment) can easily agitate their already activated sympathetic nervous system

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

dogs. 4 , 6 Induction of vomiting ≤ 2 hours after ingestion can minimize absorption of ingested toxins. 4 Oral administration of an activated charcoal slurry can be helpful by binding toxins if cholestyramine is unavailable. 4 , 5 Veterinarians

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

was. Was their childhood like mine? Were they expected to be perfect, to always do more? Did they grow up in a home with heightened and unpredictable negative emotions? When veterinary work activated those subconscious memories, did they share their

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

include activated charcoal, osmotic diuretics, corticosteroids, and lipid emulsion. 6 Preventing exposure through client education may best serve our companion animals. In short, the EPA may have inadvertently put companion animals, especially cats, at

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, and terrorized. In situations involving strong emotional responses, the stress response coexists with the specific emotion, and fear is just one of a spectrum of emotions that can be activated in this process. 3 However, experimental evidence has

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association