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The etiology of altered bladder permeability is not fully understood. However, activation of the SNS may increase epithelial permeability, permitting substances encountered in the environment greater contact with sensory afferent neurons; increased

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

α 2 -ARs are mediated via inhibition of adenylcyclase activity, activation of K + currents, inhibition of Ca ++ channels, and increased mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation through both pre- and postsynaptic neuronal membrane receptors

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

set at values of P < 0.05. Results Urinary enzyme-to-creatinine ratios for GGT, ALP, ACP, LDH, proenzyme MMP-2, activated MMP-2, and NAG increased after administration of ketoprofen ( Table 1 ). Activity of MMP-9 was not detected in any urine

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-butorphanol-midazolam combination. After cheetahs were anesthetized, a physical examination was performed, and an 18-gauge, 1.5-inch catheter was placed in a saphenous or cephalic vein. An initial blood sample was collected in a serum clot activator tube with gel separator for

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

in 20-μL-volume reactions. Each reaction contained 10 μL of SYBR green supermix, h 5 pmol of each primer ( Appendix 1 ), and 9 μL of the reverse-transcribed cDNA sample at a 1:40 dilution. Thermal cycling conditions i consisted of an activation step

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

T-cell activation (GO:0042110) 4.28 3.87E-II 4.88E-09 Positive regulation of angiogenesis (GO:0045766) 3.08 2.26E-04 6.87E-03 Molecular function Toll-like receptor binding (GO:0035325) 9.63 2.20E-04 1.90E-02

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the postoperative period. The cause of acute hypertension following renal transplantation in humans or cats is unknown. Suggested causes include persistent activation of the reninangiotensin-aldosterone system or other blood pressure regulatory

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

striated and smooth muscle, and the position of the neck of the bladder. 3–5 In humans, urethral tone is maintained primarily by activation of postsynaptic α-adrenoceptors, 6 whereas in rabbits and dogs, urethral tone is mediated primarily by an α 1

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

.1046/j.1523-1755.1998.00745.x 11. Stapleton AM Ryall RL . Blood coagulation proteins and urolithiasis are linked: crystal matrix protein is the F1 activation peptide of human prothrombin . Br J Urol 1995 ; 75 : 712 – 719 . 10.1111/j.1464-410X

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

dose); the monocyte count in cats that had received NAG once daily for 28 days was higher than the value in cats that had received placebo. This difference may be attributable to an effect of NAG on the phagocyte activation of macrophages. One study 36

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research