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dimension is related to the level of activation and ranges from relaxed to high arousal. These dimensions together form a 2-D affective space where each emotion can be placed. There is evidence of a relationship between the valence and arousal dimensions

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify specific components of veterinarian- client-patient communication during clinical appointments in companion animal practice.

Design—Cross-sectional descriptive study.

Sample Population—A random sample of 50 companion animal practitioners in southern Ontario and a convenience sample of 300 clients and their pets.

Procedure—For each practitioner, 6 clinical appointments (3 wellness appointments and 3 appointments related to a health problem) were videotaped, and the Roter interaction analysis system (RIAS) was used to analyze the resulting 300 videotapes. Statements made during each appointment were classified by means of a communication framework reflecting the 4 essential tasks of the appointment (ie, data gathering, education and counseling, relationship building, and activation and partnership).

Results—57% of the veterinarians contacted (50/87) and 99% of the clients contacted agreed to participate in the study. Mean duration of the appointments was 13 minutes. Typically, veterinarians contributed 62% of the total conversation and clients contributed 38%. Fifty-four percent of the veterinarian interaction was with the client, and 8% was with the pet. Data gathering constituted 9% of the veterinarian-to-client communication and was primarily accomplished through closed-ended questioning; 48% of veterinarian-to-client communication involved client education and counseling, 30% involved relationship building, and 7% involved activation and partnership (the remaining 6% constituted orientation).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the RIAS was a reliable method of assessing the structure, process, and content of veterinarianclient-patient communication and that some veterinarians do not use all the tools needed for effective communication. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:222–229)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The key to saving police dogs that have been exposed to large quantities of illicit substances is rapid action. Removal from the gastrointestinal tract, adsorption, and catharsis are the first steps. Some of these measures can be instituted on site by the attending officer. In case of accidental drug exposures of a dog during a search, police officers should have on hand apomorphine, syringes for administration of the drug and rinsing of the conjunctival sac, activated charcoal, a saline cathartic such as sodium sulfate (not needed if the activated charcoal product contains sorbitol), a resuscitator bag, and a well-fitting canine face mask.

If bags of drugs are ingested intact, immediate surgery by a veterinarian may be required to remove the bag and prevent an obstruction or rapid absorption of a lethal dose. Injectible medications to antagonize the effects of the drugs should be reserved for administration by a readily available veterinarian upon arrival of the dog at the veterinary hospital. Pharmacologic antagonistic agents may have adverse side effects, especially if used in the treatment of a drug exposure against which they are not specifically indicated. Proper dosage and route of administration are additional important factors with such treatment.

The veterinarian must instruct the police officers on the proper use, dosages, and methods of administration of the detoxifying agents as well as the proper procedures for using the face mask and resuscitator bag before an emergency arises. The officer should also be aware of the clinical signs likely to be produced following exposure to the agents for which these dogs search. It should be stressed that transport to a veterinary facility as quickly as possible is critical for a veterinarian to monitor the dog closely and institute appropriate supportive and antidotal measures to combat the dangerous effects of these agents. Cooperation between local veterinarians and the police department is vital to protecting the working dogs from the chemical hazards inherent in their job.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

PCBD was guided to the proper anatomic site on the calf's skull. The main handle trigger was depressed to load the housing with compressed air and arm the PCBD. Then, the auxiliary handle trigger was depressed to activate the PCBD so that when the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Top Lab Anim Sci 2002 ; 41 : 10 – 17 . 13. Smith JC Bolon B . Comparison of three commercially available activated charcoal canisters for passive scavenging of waste isoflurane during conventional rodent anesthesia . Contemp Top Lab Anim

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

been reported to activate ocular and nasal mucosal nociceptors. 18 When CO 2 is administered to young pigs at a constant displacement rate of 10% or 20% of the container volume/min, unconsciousness occurs within 80 to 124 seconds at approximately 22

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association