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after exposure to moldy hay. 2 Although the exact role neutrophils play in the pathogenesis of the condition is not clear, there is evidence that circulating blood neutrophils are activated in horses with severe equine asthma. 3–5 Neutrophils are the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

observations together with the results of quantitative RT-PCR assay results of cytokine gene expression in efferent lymphocytes suggest that these lymphoplasmacytic accumulations are local sites of immune activation. Expression of the RANTES gene by T

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

activation, a phenomenon that seems to be dose dependent. 16 An increase in active MMP-9 activity was also demonstrated in BALF of horses with RAO after induced hyper-sensitivity reactions by different natural irritants. 15 These findings further suggest

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

test to 1, 10, 20, and 50 ng of TNF-α/mL and time course to 50 ng/mL was performed to further investigate MUC5AC mRNA expression. These experiments were performed 3 times with 3 equine donors. To investigate the role of NF-κB–mediated activation of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-17 protein concentrations are also increased in BALF obtained from healthy human volunteers exposed to organic dust. 15 After binding to its receptor on the epithelium, IL-17 initiates activation of NF-κB, which in turn directs the expression of many

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

involved in airway disease include histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, platelet-activating factor, endothelin-1, and neurokinin-A. 1,10 It has been suggested 1 that a wide range of factors, such as charged particles, various forms of dust

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

analysis was used to identify eicosanoid release in joints of horses with induced synovitis. 22 Lipidomic biomarkers of immune activation have been described in horses with leptospirosis and horses vaccinated against leptospirosis. 21 Lipidomic analysis

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

primary mechanism of action of β-receptor agonists in airway smooth muscle is activation of adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate-mediated smooth muscle relaxation. The reduced response of IPBs to isoproterenol in heart-worm-infected cats could be a

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

within the airway can cause inflammation and stretching of the pharyngeal tissue, which can lead to airway obstruction. 4 In healthy dogs, increased negative pressure in the upper airway during inspiration activates soft palate muscles to prevent the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, α-1-antirypsin, apolipoprotein A-1, haptoglobin, and transketolase) was upregulated in dogs with IPF and dogs with chronic bronchitis. Complement activation has an important role in the inflammatory response of the lungs. 29 Complement proteins

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research