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complications. This case is an example of an infarcted cancellous bone and intertrabecular fatty marrow, both of which have undergone necrosis ( Figure 2 ) . Decrease in oxygen tension caused by the loss of vascularity activated mesenchymal stem cell (MSC

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

macrophage activation, production of proinflammatory cytokines (eg, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-8), endothelial activation as well as widespread activation of the coagulation cascade, and eventual hypotensive shock. 9,10 Lastly

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

that is a component (subunit C) of mitochondrial ATP synthase. 5 Humans with the infantile form of NCL and 1 breed of dog—the Miniature Schnauzer—store a different protein, which has been identified as a sphingolipid activator protein (saposin). 5

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

associated with antigen-antibody complex deposition in blood vessel walls and consequent production of activated complement components. The activated complement components drive the recruitment, activation, and ultimately the degranulation of peripheral blood

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

( Figure 2 ). The nucleated cells composed a primarily monomorphic round cell population; scattered activated macrophages were also present. The round cell population consisted of cells that had mild anisocytosis (20 to 25 μm) with scant amounts of deeply

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

the ventricular system was mainly composed of an inflammatory infiltrate, consisting of polymorphic neutrophils and activated histiocytic cells with extensive and vacuolated cytoplasm ( Figure 2 ). In the right lateral ventricle, a fragment of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-lymphocyte activation by inhibiting the phosphatase activity of calcineurin with resultant decreased production of interleukin-2. It also downregulates cytokine expression in mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, keratinocytes, and Langerhans cells. The most common

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

neutralized by activated macrophages. 5 If a defect or delay in macrophage activation occurs, then the spores germinate into encapsulated yeasts. The capsule inhibits phagocytosis and resists phagosome digestion, thereby making the microorganism more

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

, lameness due to hemarthrosis, and disseminated hemorrhages may also develop. 10 Typical clinicopathologic abnormalities in affected dogs reflect disorders in the intrinsic, extrinsic, and common coagulation systems, with prolonged activated partial

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

posture, ruffled hair coat, and anorexia. 3,11 The pathogenesis of C kutscheri –induced disease involves upregulation of galectin, a proinflammatory lectin that causes chemoattraction of macrophages and activation of neutrophils. 13 Interestingly, the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association