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those enzymes have in the metabolism, division, and proliferation of cancer cells. The AKT pathway is 1 pathway that can be targeted through kinase inhibition. The AKT pathway is activated in most melanomas of humans, and that activation is associated

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

activation of coagulation and has been reported in up to 62% of humans with solid malignant tumors and 12% of dogs with solid malignant tumors, including dogs with mammary gland cancer. 7,8 Despite being recognized as a clinical complication for decades, the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Tissue factor, also known as tissue thromboplastin or coagulation factor III, is best known as the main activator of the coagulation cascade. Tissue factor is a small transmembrane protein that is normally expressed in perivascular fibroblasts and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

activation, a terminal event during apoptosis, was also quantified in those same cells via a caspase substrate-fluorochrome cleavage assay as previously described. 29 Uninoculated cells incubated for at least 4 hours at 37°C in media with 1μM staurosporine

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

–3 The best characterized downstream effectors of mTOR are the protein S6 kinases and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (ie, 4e-BP1). An mTOR-dependent activation of p70S6K1 promotes an increase in protein synthesis. The mTOR

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

revealed activation of caspase 3 (ie, the terminal caspase) by 48 hours of incubation ( Figure 3 ). Examination of caspase 8 activation (10-kDa fragment) did not reveal prominent activation of caspase 8, with a modest increase in signal concurrent with

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

scanned with a commercial scanner. h Experiments were performed at least twice. Caspase-3 and −7 apoptosis assay To determine activation of the apoptotic cascade in the DEN-HSA cells in response to doxorubicin, TM, and doxorubicin plus TM, DEN

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

hemangiosarcoma had laboratory evidence of DIC, which may increase mortality and morbidity rates in dogs with this tumor. Disseminated intravascular coagulation is defined as uncontrolled thrombin generation as a consequence of activation of coagulation. 4 Tissue

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

are type IV collagenases. Membrane-type 1 MMP is involved in the activation of MMP-2. Because these enzymes are able to degrade critical basement membrane and ECM components (different types of collagen, elastin, and fibronectin), they play an

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

activated, they can cause malignant transformation. Indeed, expression of constitutively active Kit or Flt3 in murine hematopoietic progenitors results in the development of hematologic malignancies. 20,21 In naturally occurring cancers, mutations in Kit

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research