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-induced neuronal death remains unknown, and an appropriate treatment for prevention of seizure-induced neuronal death has not been identified. Seizures can induce angiogenesis and microglial activation, which are believed to be related to neuronal death. 10

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

with naturally occurring SCIs and in animals with experimentally induced SCIs, including axon destruction, demyelination, and centrally oriented necrosis and cavitation. 8 Spinal cord lesions in affected dogs contain activated microglia 9 ; have

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-dependent endopeptidases that degrade various components of the extracellular matrix. Both membrane-associated and secreted forms of these enzymes have been described, and they are typically released as inactive or latent proenzymes, requiring proteolytic activation after

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

muscles of respiration and are activated during forced inspiration. 5–7 Figure 1— Annotated photographic image of the atlas of an equine cadaver. The first cervical nerve (FCN) passes through the intervertebral and alar foramina. The passage of the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord, it is needed in the brain for glutamate-induced activation of the NMDA channel and could exacerbate the harmful effects of increased glutamate concentrations. 54 This is of concern because of the fact that

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

concentration in the CSF of subjects with experimentally induced and spontaneous IE, but the findings regarding GABA concentrations in the CSF are less consistent. Glutamate causes activation of N -methyl- d -aspartic acid receptors, which opens calcium

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

responses. 60 The upregulated expression of genes responsible for encoding complement proteins Clq and C2 ( C1QA and C2 , respectively) in the present study indicated the activation of the complement cascade by the classic pathway, which is mediated

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

100%, which is similar to that in humans and dogs. Because F-wave amplitude reflects the proportion of a motor neuron pool activated by the stimulation, it is influenced by the excitability of the motor neuron in the spinal cord or by the conduction

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

ischemia-reperfusion injury or age-related retinal changes 21,23–26 and to protect against oxidative stress by activating scavenging superoxide anions. 27 In rats with blunt-impact muscle trauma, photobiomodulation therapy blocked reactive oxygen species

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

–23 The use of certain sedatives raises the possibility of activating the EEG, which enhances the probability of interictal paroxysmal discharges seen in epileptic patients. 24,25 Chlorpromazine appears to be the sedative of choice in dogs with epilepsy

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research