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of muscle cells through exercise. 3 The ERK 1-2 plays a role in early exercise-induced changes in gene expression and protein synthesis. This system is activated by numerous extracellular cues, such as growth factors and hormones typically transduced

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

regulators of mTOR signaling include insulin (which acts through Akt), amino acids, and exercise, which activate mTOR through independent pathways. 17,18 Once activated, mTOR is then able to phosphorylate its downstream targets, including 4EBP1 and S6K1

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

; phosphorylation of these factors leads to an increase in translation initiation and subsequently an increase in protein synthesis. 20 Activation of Akt is also involved in protein degradation; Akt phosphorylates and inactivates nuclear transcription factor FoxO

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

,11 Briefly, insulin activates Akt through the activation of several intermediate signaling proteins. 11,12 Activation of Akt inactivates the mTOR inhibitor tuberous sclerosis complex 2 through phosphorylation, 11 which allows the activation of mTOR through

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

peripheral WBCs become activated during the prodromal stage of acute laminitis induced by administration of an aqueous BWHE and leave the circulation. Concomitant with this leukopenic response are increases in leukocyte production of radical oxygen species

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, cachexia, and critical illnesses. 13 Muscle atrophy can also occur in inherited and acquired myopathies and neuropathies. Triggering signals of muscle wasting include proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) that are potent activators of NFκB

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Akt (also referred to as protein kinase B and Rac) phosphorylation at Ser 473 and Thr 308 occurs through 2 mechanisms, 4 both of which are insulin responsive. 5 Once phosphorylated, Akt activates mTOR both directly by phosphorylating mTOR and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-neutrophil aggregates was detected in ponies that were administered CHO. Furthermore, pretreatment with a platelet aggregation inhibitor prevented development of laminitis in ponies administered CHO, highlighting the importance of these activated cell aggregates in the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

potent mitogen found in α-granules of platelets and activated macrophages that induces chemotaxis and fibroblast proliferation. During tendon healing, it is hypothesized that PDGF influences collagen and proteoglycan extracellular matrix concentrations

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

the α-granules of platelets and released following vessel damage and subsequent platelet activation. During activation, the α-granules release their contents (including adhesive proteins, plasma proteins, cellular mitogens [primarily growth factors

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research