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, and altering immunoregulation (decreasing proinflammatory effects and promoting protective molecules). 15 These interactions may lead to enhancement of natural and antigen-specific antibodies, 16,17 activation or suppression of T cells, 18 and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

intracellular granules and only released after platelet activation. 16 In human medicine, exogenous activators are frequently used to increase humoral concentrations of cytokines in platelet concentrates prior to application, whereas in equine medicine, these

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, produce IFN-γ and activate macrophage-dominated, cell-mediated responses. In contrast, Th-2 cells, stimulated to differentiate by IL-4, produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and mediate antibody-dominated humoral responses. 3 Although some investigators have

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

osteoarthritis are products or by-products created from alterations in the balance between catabolic and anabolic processes in a joint. 1 Damage to cartilage, synovium, or subchondral bone and activation of WBCs is associated with the release of these biomarkers

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, IL-6, and TNF-α, which are cytokines responsible for the induction of fever, neutrophil recruitment, tissue remodeling, and immune activation, and INF-γ, which is a pleotropic cytokine with proinflammatory properties that augments TNF activity. 11

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. Proinflammatory cytokines that activate cellular defenses are produced, followed by production of anti-inflammatory cytokines to attenuate and control the proinflammatory response. This anti-inflammatory response, referred as compensatory anti

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

regeneration in damaged or diseased muscle. When a skeletal muscle sample is cultured in vitro, the activated satellite cells divide, and in appropriate conditions, the resulting myoblasts then can be induced to fuse to form more mature and differentiated

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

has been shown in rats that epidermal growth factor promotes healing of gastric ulcers by activating NHE, 23 suggesting that inactivation of NHE may play a role in the development of gastric ulcers. In addition, NAKA and NHE are synergistic in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

eliciting mucosal immune responses and maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Its functionality is ensured by contact with the normal microbiota, which activates both innate defense mechanisms and adaptive immune responses. 8 The microbiota of chickens can be

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, complete, Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, Mo. c. GenScript USA Inc, Piscataway, NJ. d. Freund's adjuvant, incomplete, Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, Mo. e. NHS-activated Sepharose Fast Flow beads, GE Healthcare Biosciences, Pittsburgh, Pa. f. NanoDrop 1000

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research