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-selectin expression on activated platelets could facilitate direct platelet adhesion to endothelial cells (bound platelets form the physical foundation of the thrombus) or could promote leukocyte recruitment and activation via binding to PSGL-1, which is expressed on

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

amounts of inflammatory cytokines following R equi infection. These mechanisms and those necessary for appropriate activation of phagocytes against R equi in the airways are poorly understood. Neutrophils are important cells of the innate immune

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Moreover, addition of exogenous IL-10 or TGF-β to bovine monocytes permits greater proliferation of Mptb organisms. 9 Three subfamilies of MAPK, including JNK/SAPK, ERK-1 and -2, and p38, are described. 10–12 The MAPK pathway is activated by several

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease, a severe chronic enteritis of ruminants. 1 Survival of this organism in the body appears to be attributable to its capacity to block activation of

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Cyclosporine A has potent effects on the immune system. Rapidly reversible immunosuppression is induced primarily by blocking the transcription of genes encoding IL-2 and other cytokines. Absence of IL-2 synthesis prevents activation and

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

but can become pathogenic when they invade other tissues. Neutrophils infiltrate the site of infection 3 and are a fundamental component of both the innate and adaptive segments of the immune response. Activated PMNs upregulate chemotactic activity

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

with a pathogen include activation of immune components, endocrine responses that favor catabolic reactions rather than anabolic reactions, repartitioning of nutrients to meet the increase in energy demands, and suspension of less essential biological

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

can also be activated by longer siRNAs (ie, 27-mers). The 27-mers are actually more potent inducers of RNAi than 21-mers; these longer siRNAs are processed by the endoribonuclease Dicer, and the resultant siRNAs are therefore more efficiently

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

favors leukocyte recruitment and activation in the lymph nodes from 1 day after inoculation, contributing to increases in vascular permeability and tissue damage. 36,37 Retropharyngeal lymph nodes were the most affected in the BHV-1 and BVDV– BHV-1 group

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

field cases of PDNS. 1,3,6,10–12 Although the reason or reasons for this are unknown, it is likely that the microbe-free status combined with the general lack of immunologic activation associated with gnotobiotic conditions could account for the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research