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directly regulated by TSH that is released by the pituitary gland. The interaction of TSH with its receptor on the surface of thyroid cells results in activation of receptor-coupled heterotrimeric G proteins that control cAMP concentrations in the thyroid

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

The HPA axis is a major component of neuroendocrine responses to stressful events. The primary adaptive response to physiologic or psychologic stress in all mammals involves activation of this axis. As a consequence, CRH is released from the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

to investigate potential neoplasia-promoting effects of LH receptor activation (eg, cell proliferation, migration, or invasion) in lymphocytes is warranted. The identification of potential neoplasia-promoting effects of LH receptor activation in

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

promotes glycogen synthesis via dephosphorylation and activation of GS. The initial steps in the signaling pathways for insulinstimulated translocation of GLUT-4 and activation of GS are common. 7 These steps include autophosphorylation of the insulin

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

receptor-A is located primarily in vascular smooth muscle, and in human patients, activation of ETR-A causes cell growth and contraction of smooth muscle cells, resulting in hypertension. 12 Endothelin receptor-B is located primarily in the endothelium

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

modulation of 1 or more signaling pathways, such as the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. Others have reported that ACTH induces activation of Erk1/2 in human H295R adrenal cells 33 and that activation of the ERK cascade is involved in steroid

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

. 35 As the other mechanism of leptin resistance, defects of leptin receptor-postreceptor signaling have been suspected. 36–38 Leptin binds to its receptor in the hypothalamus to activate signaling, including the Janus activated kinase 2 (JAK2

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

acid, which is essential for binding to the GH secretagogue receptor type 1a, for the GH-releasing capacity of ghrelin, and most likely for its other endocrine actions. 1,8 Through activation of pathways distinct from those leading to GH secretion

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-independent mechanisms, primarily by the CaR that affects transepithelial transport of iCa and iMg in the TAL and distal convoluted tubules. 1,4,5 Activation of the CaR in the TAL inhibits the sodium-potassiumchloride cotransporter, which is essential for paracellular

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

The stress response is defined by activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Increases in ACTH and cortisol concentrations ensue in humans within minutes after initiation of surgery

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research