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activation. A P wave could be found within every QRS complex, suggesting 1:1 ventriculoatrial conduction. The diagnosis was focal junctional tachycardia. Discussion Supraventricular tachycardia is a broad term that includes various rapid rhythm

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

appropriately timed ventricular pacing impulse. Recently, interest in the sequence of ventricular electrical activation has grown because of increasing evidence that chronic pacing at the conventional pacing site, the RVA, is associated with pathologic changes

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

corresponds to caudocranial activation of the atria secondary to a block in the interatrial conduction pathways. Paper speed = 50 mm/s; 1 cm = 1 mV. Discussion The dog described in the present report did not have any clinical signs except for the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

activation cranially) and smaller P waves when the heart rate is slow (vagal stimulation shifts the pacemaker site of impulse activation caudally). Paper speed = 25 mm/s; 10 mm = 1 mV. Pacemaker implantation was not performed because a definitive

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

-first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block (white arrow). When the R'P interval is 160 milliseconds, the P wave is not conducted, which results in pseudo–second-degree AV block (black arrow). In the ladder diagram, the upper zone represents atrial activation (A), the middle zone

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

potassium, which results in prolongation of action potentials and the consequent development of sinus arrest. 9 Moreover, tacrolimus can activate the transient receptor potential channel M8 (TRPM8) in mice, rats, and humans. 10 TRPM8 is a nonselective

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

outpouring to slow the heart rate during exhalation. 12,14 Stretch receptors in the lungs and thoracic wall also have a role in autonomic control of heart rate; activation of the stretch receptors causes an increase in heart rate during inhalation by

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

. The A tier represents atrial activation, the A-V tier represents AV nodal conduction, and the V tier represents ventricular activation. The A-V tier is subdivided by a dashed line into a proximal and distal region in the AV node. Dots in the A tier

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

receptors and β 1 -, β 2 -, and β 3 -adrenergic receptors. 9 , 10 Even though adrenergic receptors are all activated by catecholamines, they mediate very different cellular responses on the basis of G-protein coupling and intracellular transduction pathways

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

examination of a cat that had developed intermittent lethargy and exercise intolerance over a 6-month period. In the ladder diagram, the upper zone represents atrial activation (A), the middle zone represents AV conduction (AV), and the lower zone represents

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association