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exposure. On exposure, naïve antigen-specific T cells are induced to differentiate into T H 2 phenotype cells, which then activate B cells. The B cells undergo class switching and produce IgE, which binds to the high-affinity receptor for IgE (ie, FcϵRI) on

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

mediated, at least in part, by the so-called entourage effect (ie, activation of CB1, CB2, and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channels 6 by PEA enhances effects of the endocannabinoid anandamide). Cannabinoid receptor type 1 is

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

release. 32 Pentoxifylline has a variety of immunomodulatory effects, consistent with its potential for inhibition of multiple PDE isoenzymes. It inhibits activation of the nuclear transcription factor κ-B 33,34 and the signaling molecules p38, 35 ERK

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research