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,4 Platelets perform these diverse functions through a series of activation responses characterized by shape change, adhesion, aggregation, secretion, membrane lipid remodeling, and microvesiculation. Numerous soluble and cell membrane–bound agonists interact

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

evidence of mitral valve prolapse reported in > 80% of CKCSs that are < 3 years old. 2 In all species, valvular heart disease has the potential to affect platelet activation or function as a result of turbulent high-velocity blood flow and fluid shear

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Interruption of RAAS activation is an important goal in the pharmacological treatment of congestive heart failure. Hypotension, decreased cardiac output, sympathetic stimulation, and low blood sodium concentrations all stimulate the RAAS

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Some neuroendocrine mechanisms are triggered in humans and other animals during the development of HF that contribute to the progression of the disease. 1–7 Among the main mechanisms are stimulation of the SNS, activation of the renin

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Coagulopathies associated with cardiac bypass procedures in dogs are complex and poorly understood. Known causes include hemodilution, platelet activation, thrombin activation and enhanced fibrinolysis, and enhanced antithrombin III activity by

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-shear cardiac conditions. 29,30 High-molecular weight monomers of von Willebrand factor are important in the activation of platelets subjected to high shear stress, 31 which could indicate less platelet activation in later stages of MMVD. Platelets subjected

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

condition, despite the fact that activation of the plasma (circulating) RAAS during early stages of the condition implies the efficacy of ACE inhibitors. 5 Cardiomegaly and intensity of the cardiac murmur have been proposed 4 as factors that affect the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

The RAAS is activated in states of decreased cardiac output, such as heart failure. Short-term activation of the RAAS, early in the course of heart failure or with volume contraction, is a useful compensatory mechanism, whereas chronic activation

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

method. 8 Lang et al 9 attributed this specifically to greater secretion of tPA by the pulmonary endothelium, greater plasminogen activator activity (tPA and other plasminogen activators), and greater platelet thrombolytic activity. Chromogenic

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Platelets are the primary cellular mediators of hemostasis and, when activated in response to vascular injury, initiate the production of thrombin. Thrombin activates fibrinogen, which polymerizes to form the fibrin meshwork that blocks the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research