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, such as that seen in progressive joint disease. 6 Osteoclast development and activation depend on a system comprising RANK, RANKL, and OPG. A membrane-bound tumor necrosis factor superfamily ligand, RANKL, can be released from cells after cleavage by

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, and IL-1 receptor antagonist production as well as interference with integrin signaling, induction of chondrocyte apoptosis, stimulation of metalloproteinase production and activation, and inactivation of tissue inhibitors of MMPs. 13 The PPARγ

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

secreted undetectable or low amounts of PGE 2 , compared with the amount of PGE 2 produced by cytokine-stimulated cells ( Figure 4 ). Chondrocytes responded to cytokine activation with dramatic logarithmic increases in PGE 2 synthesis. The robust response

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

-mobility group box 1 protein, hyaluronan, fibronectin, and fibrinogen, are recognized by TLR-2 or TLR-4 (or both). 3–5 Activation of TLR pathways can induce transcription factors (notably nuclear factor-κβ) resulting in inflammatory responses characterized by

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

osteoarthritic process, induces the production of ROS in several cell types. 6–11 Activation with IL-1β or TNF-α increases the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase, which regulates the production of nitric oxide, by chondrocytes in vitro. 9 Excessive

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

The inflammatory response associated with septic arthritis is characterized by a rapid influx of inflammatory cells, mostly neutrophils, and activation of synoviocytes and chondrocytes. 1 Together, these cells release numerous inflammatory

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

was detected in an in vivo study. 25 All treated specimens had activated osteons throughout the width of the cortex, and there was a notable endosteal response. In another in vivo experiment with 6 nonlame (sound) horses, no significant effect of ESWT

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

, and protein activation. 21 Matrix metalloproteinase-13 is secreted as an inactive proenzyme, and proteolytic cleavage of pro-MMP-13 to the active form is enhanced by exposure to inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor, by

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

functional, commonly making use of a cAMP-protein kinase A signaling pathway as well as other signaling pathways such as the protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. 4 For example, in women, LHR activation results in maintenance of the

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

signaling. Activation of FZDs and LRP-5/6 triggers phosphorylation of dishevelled homolog proteins, disrupting the β-catenin degradation complex containing GSK-3β. This complex typically degrades β-catenin by means of proteasomal degradation; however, when

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research